Victims remembered following death of hippie cult killer Charles Manson
Charles Manson, the hippie cult leader who became the hypnotic-eyed face of evil across America after masterminding the gruesome murders of pregnant actress Sharon Tate and six others in Los Angeles during the summer of 1969, has died after nearly a half-century in prison.
He was 83.
Manson died on Sunday night of natural causes at a California hospital while serving a life sentence, his name synonymous to this day with unspeakable violence and depravity.
Michele Hanisee, president of the Association of Deputy District Attorneys for Los Angeles County, reacted to the death by quoting the late Vincent Bugliosi, the prosecutor who put Manson behind bars.
Mr Bugliosi said: "Manson was an evil, sophisticated con man with twisted and warped moral values."
"Today, Manson's victims are the ones who should be remembered and mourned on the occasion of his death," Ms Hanisee said.
A petty criminal who had been in and out of jail since childhood, the charismatic, guru-like Manson surrounded himself in the 1960s with runaways and other lost souls and then sent his disciples to butcher some of LA's rich and famous in what prosecutors said was a bid to trigger a race war, an idea he said he got from a twisted reading of the Beatles song Helter Skelter.
The deaths horrified the world and, together with the deadly violence that erupted later in 1969 during a Rolling Stones concert at California's Altamont Speedway, exposed the dangerous, drugged-out underside of the counterculture movement and seemed to mark the death of the era of peace and love.
Despite the overwhelming evidence against him, Manson maintained during his tumultuous trial in 1970 that he was innocent and that society itself was guilty.
"These children that come at you with knives, they are your children. You taught them; I didn't teach them. I just tried to help them stand up," he said in a courtroom soliloquy.
Linda Deutsch, the longtime courts reporter for The Associated Press who covered the Manson case, said he "left a legacy of evil and hate and murder".
"He was able to take young people who were impressionable and convince them he had the answer to everything and he turned them into killers," she said.
"It was beyond anything we had ever seen before in this country."
California Corrections Department spokeswoman Vicky Waters said it has yet to be determined what happens to Manson's body.
It was also unclear if Manson requested funeral services of any sort.
Prison officials previously said Manson had no known next of kin, and state law says that if no relative or legal representative surfaces within 10 days, then it is up to the department to determine whether the body is cremated or buried.
The Manson Family, as his followers were called, slaughtered five victims on August 9 1969, at Tate's home: the actress, who was eight and a half months pregnant, coffee heiress Abigail Folger, celebrity hairdresser Jay Sebring, Polish movie director Voityck Frykowski and Steven Parent, a friend of the estate's caretaker.
Tate's husband, Rosemary's Baby director Roman Polanski, was out of the country at the time.
The next night, a wealthy grocer and his wife, Leno and Rosemary LaBianca, were stabbed to death in their home across town.
The killers scrawled such phrases as Pigs and a misspelled Healter Skelter in blood at the crime scenes.
Manson was arrested three months later.
In the annals of American crime, he became the personification of evil, a short, shaggy-haired, bearded figure with a demonic stare and an X, later turned into a swastika, carved into his forehead.
"Many people I know in Los Angeles believe that the 60s ended abruptly on August 9 1969," author Joan Didion wrote in her 1979 book The White Album.
After a trial that lasted nearly a year, Manson and three followers, Susan Atkins, Patricia Krenwinkel and Leslie Van Houten, were found guilty of murder and sentenced to death.
Another defendant, Charles "Tex" Watson, was convicted later.
All were spared execution and given life sentences after the California Supreme Court struck down the death penalty in 1972.
Atkins died behind bars in 2009.
Krenwinkel, Van Houten and Watson remain in prison.
Another Manson devotee, Lynette "Squeaky" Fromme, tried to assassinate President Gerald Ford in 1975, but her gun jammed.
She served 34 years in prison.
Manson was born in Cincinnati on November 12, 1934, to a teenager, possibly a prostitute, and was in reform school by the time he was eight.
After serving a 10-year sentence for check forgery in the 1960s, Manson was said to have pleaded with authorities not to release him because he considered prison home.
"My father is the jailhouse. My father is your system," he would later say in a monologue on the witness stand.
"I am only what you made me. I am only a reflection of you."
He was set free in San Francisco during the heyday of the hippie movement in the city's Haight-Ashbury section, and though he was in his mid-30s by then, he began collecting followers, mostly women, who likened him to Jesus Christ.
Most were teenagers; many came from good homes but were at odds with their parents.
The "family" eventually established a commune-like base at the Spahn Ranch, a ramshackle former movie location outside Los Angeles, where Manson manipulated his followers with drugs, oversaw orgies and subjected them to bizarre lectures.
He had musical ambitions and befriended rock stars, including Beach Boy Dennis Wilson.
He also met Terry Melcher, a music producer who had lived in the same house that Polanski and Tate later rented.
By the summer of 1969, Manson had failed to sell his songs, and the rejection was later seen as a trigger for the violence.
He complained that Wilson took a Manson song called Cease To Exist, revised it into Never Learn Not To Love and recorded it with the Beach Boys without giving Manson credit.
Manson was obsessed with Beatles music, particularly Piggies and Helter Skelter, a hard-rocking song that he interpreted as forecasting the end of the world.
He told his followers that "Helter Skelter is coming down" and predicted a race war would destroy the planet.
"Everybody attached themselves to us, whether it was our fault or not," the Beatles' George Harrison, who wrote Piggies, later said of the murders.
"It was upsetting to be associated with something so sleazy as Charles Manson."
According to evidence, Manson sent his devotees out on the night of Tate's murder with instructions to "do something witchy".
The state's star witness, Linda Kasabian, who was granted immunity, testified that Manson tied up the LaBiancas, then ordered his followers to kill.
But Manson insisted: "I have killed no one, and I have ordered no one to be killed."
His trial was nearly scuttled when President Richard Nixon said Manson was "guilty, directly or indirectly".
Manson grabbed a newspaper and held up the front-page headline for jurors to read: Manson Guilty, Nixon Declares.
Lawyers demanded a mistrial but were turned down.
From then on, jurors, sequestered at a hotel for 10 months, travelled to and from the courtroom in buses with blacked-out windows so they could not read the headlines on newsstands.
Manson was also later convicted of the deaths of a musician and a stuntman.
Over the decades, Manson and his followers appeared sporadically at parole hearings, where their bids for freedom were repeatedly rejected.
The women suggested they had been rehabilitated, but Manson himself stopped attending, saying prison had become his home.
The killings inspired movies and TV shows, and Mr Bugliosi, the prosecutor, wrote a best-selling book about the murders, Helter Skelter.
The macabre rock star Marilyn Manson borrowed part of his stage name from the killer.
"The Manson case, to this day, remains one of the most chilling in crime history," veteran crime reporter Theo Wilson wrote in her 1998 memoir, Headline Justice: Inside The Courtroom - The Country's Most Controversial Trials.
''Even people who were not yet born when the murders took place know the name Charles Manson, and shudder."