Sunday 25 August 2019

South Africa moves closer to legal trade in rhino horns

Rhino breeders and game reserve owners took the South African government to court to try to overturn the ban on the domestic trade of rhino horn
Rhino breeders and game reserve owners took the South African government to court to try to overturn the ban on the domestic trade of rhino horn

A South African court has opened the way to allowing local trade in rhino horns, alarming some conservationists who warned the ruling leaves the animals even more vulnerable to poachers.

South Africa's environment ministry said it will appeal a judge's decision in Pretoria to rescind a nearly seven-year-old moratorium on the domestic trade in rhino horns, meaning the ban is likely to stay in place pending the outcome of that appeal.

The ruling by Judge Francis Legodi stirred an often acrimonious debate between those who say legalisation will spur poaching, and rhino breeders and others who believe a regulated trade that allows the sale of horn stockpiles and the harvesting of horns from living rhinos will undercut poaching.

Mr Legodi said the South African government had failed to properly consult the public before imposing the moratorium in 2009 and also questioned its effectiveness, noting that rhino poaching surged to record levels after the ban.

"What disastrous implications would be brought about by the immediate lifting of the moratorium? I cannot think of any," he said in a 39-page ruling.

He cited statistics showing the number of rhinos poached in 2008, before the ban, was just below 100, compared to around 1,200 last year.

The ruling came as the environment ministry reported the arrests of 12 people, including three police officers, for alleged rhino poaching.

South Africa is home to an estimated 22,000 rhinos, more than 80% of the global rhino population.

Poaching syndicates have increasingly targeted rhinos to meet rising demand for their horns in parts of Asia, particularly Vietnam.

Consumers believe rhino horn, which is ground into powder, has medicinal benefits, but there is no scientific evidence to support the belief.

The horn is made of keratin, a protein also found in human fingernails.

Two South African rhino owners had taken the South African government to court seeking to overturn a moratorium on the domestic trade in rhino horn.

One of them, John Hume, has 4,000 kilograms of legally obtained rhino horn and his investment in rhinos and their horns is worth tens of millions of dollars, according to court documents.

Pelham Jones of the Private Rhino Owners Association welcomed Thursday's ruling.

He said a regulated trade would "take away a lot of the exclusive status of the product" even if it does not shut down the illegal market entirely.

He added that legal sellers could funnel proceeds back into conservation.

"This is not about making money," Mr Jones said. "This is about trying to save an iconic species."

Allison Thomson, founder of an anti-poaching group in South Africa, said she was bitterly disappointed by the ruling.

She said: "South Africa does not have a market for rhino horn domestically and the opening of trade locally will only lead to the smuggling of rhino horn by criminal syndicates into the black market in Vietnam and China."

Another conservation group, the International Fund for Animal Welfare, said the push for a legal trade in South Africa was part of a wider campaign to legalise an international market.

An international ban on the rhino horn trade has been in place since 1977.

South Africa has proposed that the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora, which oversees the trade of wild animals and plants, discuss lifting the ban at its next meeting in Johannesburg in September 2016.

South Africa's environment ministry said a government permit would be required for any domestic trade in rhino horn in the event that there is no ban.

PA Media

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