Wednesday 17 January 2018

Scientists now 'editing' genetic code to conquer diseases

Thinkstock Images
Thinkstock Images

John von Radowitz

A WAY of editing the genetic code one letter at a time has been developed that could help scientists conquer diseases caused by tiny glitches in DNA.

The process allows single letter mutations not only to be introduced to cells, but accurately identified.

Using the technique, scientists were able to spot one mutant in a sample of 1,000 cells. The research raises the prospect of accurately modelling human diseases in the laboratory, as well as finding cures to fix specific disease mutations.

"Our method provides a novel way to capture and amplify specific mutations that are normally exceedingly rare," said lead researcher Dr Bruce Conklin, from the Gladstone Institutes in California, US. The human genetic code, written in DNA, is made up of repeating sequences of four chemical "building blocks" designated by letters A, C, T and G.

Substituting just one letter for another can lead to devastating diseases. Examples are sickle cell anaemia, haemophilia, "accelerated ageing" disease progeria, and proteus syndrome – the tissue overgrowth disease believed to have afflicted Joseph Merrick, the "Elephant Man".

Cystic fibrosis, which destroys lungs, is caused by the deletion of three code letters.

A major challenge for scientists is the fact that such mutations can be very rare, often affecting as few as 1pc of cells.

"For our method to work, we needed to find a way to efficiently identify a single mutation among hundreds of normal, healthy cells," said Gladstone co-author Dr Yuichiro Miyaoka.

"So, we designed a special fluorescent probe that would distinguish the mutated sequence from the original sequences. We were then able to sort through both sets of sequences and detect mutant cells – even when they made up as little as one in every 1,000."

"Our high-efficiency, high-fidelity method could very well be the basis for the next phase of human genetics research," said Dr Conklin.

"Some of the most devastating diseases we face are caused by the tiniest of genetic changes. But we are hopeful that our technique could one day be used to repair the damaged code."

The research is published in the journal 'Nature Methods'.

Irish Independent

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