Sunday 21 October 2018

MI5 may have been able to stop Manchester Arena terror attack - inquiry finds

File photo dated 23/05/17 of police officers laying flowers in St Ann's Square, Manchester, the day after a suicide bomber killed 22 people, including children, as an explosion tore through fans leaving a pop concert in Manchester. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of police officers laying flowers in St Ann's Square, Manchester, the day after a suicide bomber killed 22 people, including children, as an explosion tore through fans leaving a pop concert in Manchester. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after reports of an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after reports of an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of a police officer on the streets the morning after a suspected terrorist attack at the Manchester Arena at the end of a concert by US star Ariana Grande left 19 dead. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
Handout CCTV still dated 22/05/17 issued by Greater Manchester Police of Salman Abedi on the night he carried out the Manchester Arena terror attack. Greater Manchester Police/PA Wire

Hayden Smith

MI5 was "actively" investigating the ringleader of the London Bridge atrocity at the time of the rampage, while the Manchester bombing could have been stopped "had the cards fallen differently", an official assessment has found.

It confirms that three terrorists involved in attacks that hit Britain between March and June this year had at some point been on authorities' radar.

The UK's security apparatus faced questions after dozens of victims were killed or injured in Westminster, Manchester, London Bridge and Finsbury Park.

MI5 and police launched independent reviews to examine what was known about the perpetrators before they struck and decisions made on intelligence.

An independent assessment of the findings by David Anderson QC concludes that there is "no cause for despair", saying most attacks continue to be successfully disrupted.

But he notes that, other than in the case of Finsbury Park, it cannot be said that MI5 and police were "entirely blindsided".

SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA - NOVEMBER 14: Members of the French community living in South Korea light candles at a vigil outside the French embassy on November 14, 2015 in Seoul, South Korea. At least 128 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA - NOVEMBER 14: Members of the French community living in South Korea light candles at a vigil outside the French embassy on November 14, 2015 in Seoul, South Korea. At least 128 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)
Travelers arrive at Toulouse Blagnac Airport in Toulouse as soldiers from the 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (3e RPIMa) of Carcassonne, wait to leave for Paris, on November 14, 2015, as part of a reinforcement of security provisions, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / REMY GABALDAREMY GABALDA/AFP/Getty Images
A woman looks at messages and flowers left at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
A woman lays a bunch of flowers at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA - NOVEMBER 14: Members of the French community living in South Korea light candles at a vigil outside the French embassy on November 14, 2015 in Seoul, South Korea. At least 128 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)
SEOUL, SOUTH KOREA - NOVEMBER 14: Members of the French community living in South Korea light candles at a vigil outside the French embassy on November 14, 2015 in Seoul, South Korea. At least 128 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Chung Sung-Jun/Getty Images)
Sweden's Prime minister Stefan Lofven lays down a flower next to the French ambassador to Sweden Jacques Lapouge outside the French embassy in Stockholm, November 14, 2015 a day after deadly attacks in Paris on November 14, 2015 in Stockholm. Two Swedish citizens may be among the victims of the attacks that killed more than 120 people in Paris, the foreign ministry said. AFP PHOTO / TT NEWS AGENCY / JOHAN NILSSON SWEDEN OUTJOHAN NILSSON/AFP/Getty Images
BERLIN, GERMANY - NOVEMBER 14: Messages, flowers and candles left by mourners lie at the gate of the French Embassy following the recent terror attacks in Paris on November 14, 2015 in Berlin, Germany. Hundreds of people came throughout the day to lay flowers, candles and messages of condolence to mourn the victims of attacks last night in Paris that left at least 120 people dead across the French capital. The Islamic State (IS) has claimed responsibility for the attacks that were carried out by at least eight terrorists. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
Soldiers patrol at Toulouse Blagnac Airport in Toulouse, on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / REMY GABALDAREMY GABALDA/AFP/Getty Images
A man lights a candle at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
BERLIN, GERMANY - NOVEMBER 14: A little girl lays a rose while standing over candlles arranged into the word "Paris" among flowers and messages left by mourners at the gate of the French Embassy following the recent terror attacks in Paris on November 14, 2015 in Berlin, Germany. Hundreds of people came throughout the day to lay flowers, candles and messages of condolence to mourn the victims of attacks last night in Paris that left at least 120 people dead across the French capital. The Islamic State (IS) has claimed responsibility for the attacks that were carried out by at least eight terrorists.. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
BERLIN, GERMANY - NOVEMBER 14: A hand-written sign in French reads: "We suffer with France" among flowers and candles left by mourners at the gate of the French Embassy following the recent terror attacks in Paris on November 14, 2015 in Berlin, Germany. Hundreds of people came throughout the day to lay flowers, candles and messages of condolence to mourn the victims of attacks last night in Paris that left at least 120 people dead across the French capital. The Islamic State (IS) has claimed responsibility for the attacks that were carried out by at least eight terrorists. (Photo by Sean Gallup/Getty Images)
Soldiers from the 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (3e RPIMa) of Carcassonne, arrive at Toulouse Blagnac Airport in Toulouse, before leaving for Paris, on November 14, 2015, as part of a reinforcement of security provisions, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / REMY GABALDAREMY GABALDA/AFP/Getty Images
A bunch of flowers is left with a message at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
A woman lays a bunch of flowers at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
Police officers patrol at Toulouse Blagnac Airport in Toulouse on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / REMY GABALDAREMY GABALDA/AFP/Getty Images
A paper with a drawing of hearts in tricolour is fixed at the fence of the French embassy in Oslo, on November 14, 2015 a day after deadly attacks in Paris. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. AFP PHOTO / PIERRE-HENRY DESHAYESPierre-Henry DESHAYES/AFP/Getty Images
Leader of the French Far-right party the Front National (FN) Marine Le Pen delivers an address in Nanterre, suburban Paris on November 14, 2015, in response to the attacks in which at least 128 people were killed. Islamic State jihadists claimed a series of coordinated attacks by gunmen and suicide bombers in Paris that killed at least 128 people in scenes of carnage at a concert hall, restaurants and the national stadium. AFP PHOTO / FRANCOIS GUILLOTFRANCOIS GUILLOT/AFP/Getty Images
French Defence minister Jean-Yves Le Drian arrives for a cabinet meeting at the Elysee Palace in Paris on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 14 which left more than 120 people dead. French President Francois Hollande today declared three days of national mourning following the deadly Paris attacks. AFP PHOTO / STEPHANE DE SAKUTINSTEPHANE DE SAKUTIN/AFP/Getty Images
French Prime Minister Manuels Valls uses his mobile phone as he arrives for a cabinet meeting at the Elysee Palace in Paris on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 14 which left more than 120 people dead. French President Francois Hollande today declared three days of national mourning following the deadly Paris attacks. AFP PHOTO / STEPHANE DE SAKUTINSTEPHANE DE SAKUTIN/AFP/Getty Images
A woman places a bunch of flowers at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
A woman prays at messages and flowers left at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
MADRID, SPAIN - NOVEMBER 14: An armed policeman patrols outside Atocha train station a day after the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Madrid, Spain. At least 127 people have been killed and over 200 injured in a series of terrorist attacks in Paris, France on Friday night. (Photo by Denis Doyle/Getty Images)
Portugal's players observe a minute of silence in honor of victims of the attacks that left at least 120 dead in Paris, prior to the friendly football match between Russia and Portugal in Krasnodar on November 14, 2015. AFP PHOTO / KIRILL KUDRYAVTSEVKIRILL KUDRYAVTSEV/AFP/Getty Images
A woman reacts as she looks at the flowers and messages left at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
Sweden's Prime minister Stefan Lofven signs a condolence book at the French embassy next to the French ambassador to Sweden Jacques Lapouge in Stockholm, November 14, 2015 a day after deadly attacks in Paris on November 14, 2015 in Stockholm. Two Swedish citizens may be among the victims of the attacks that killed more than 120 people in Paris, the foreign ministry said. AFP PHOTO / TT NEWS AGENCY / JOHAN NILSSON SWEDEN OUTJOHAN NILSSON/AFP/Getty Images
Soldiers from the 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (3e RPIMa) of Carcassonne, arrive at Toulouse Blagnac Airport in Toulouse, before leaving for Paris, on November 14, 2015, as part of a reinforcement of security provisions, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / REMY GABALDAREMY GABALDA/AFP/Getty Images
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: Lights in the colours of the French flag, light up the Auckland Museum to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: Signs are displayed during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: Lights in the colours of the French flag, light up the Auckland Museum to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
Flowers and messages are left at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
Soldiers from the 3rd Marine Infantry Parachute Regiment (3e RPIMa) of Carcassonne, arrive at Toulouse Blagnac Airport in Toulouse, before leaving for Paris, on November 14, 2015, as part of a reinforcement of security provisions, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / REMY GABALDAREMY GABALDA/AFP/Getty Images
A woman reacts as she looks at the flowers and messages left at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
MADRID, SPAIN - NOVEMBER 14: An armed policeman patrols outside Atocha train station a day after the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Madrid, Spain. At least 127 people have been killed and over 200 injured in a series of terrorist attacks in Paris, France on Friday night. (Photo by Denis Doyle/Getty Images)
Soldiers and police officers stand guard outside the Assemblee Nationale in Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a total of six separate attacks, which killed at least 128 people in Paris, one targeting the national stadium where the French and German national football teams were playing a friendly. AFP PHOTO / MARTIN BUREAUMARTIN BUREAU/AFP/Getty Images
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: Lights in the colours of the French flag, light up the Auckland Sky Tower to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: People gather during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: A sign is displayed during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: Signs are displayed during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: People gather during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: A sign is displayed during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: Lights in the colours of the French flag, light up the Auckland Museum to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
AUCKLAND, NEW ZEALAND - NOVEMBER 14: People gather during a vigil in Aotea Square to remember victims of the Paris attacks on November 14, 2015 in Auckland, New Zealand. According to reports, over 150 people were killed in a series of bombings and shootings across Paris, including at a soccer game at the Stade de France and a concert at the Bataclan theater. (Photo by Hannah Peters/Getty Images)
A woman lights a candle close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
Soldiers and police officers stand guard outside the Assemblee Nationale in Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a total of six separate attacks, which killed at least 128 people in Paris, one targeting the national stadium where the French and German national football teams were playing a friendly. AFP PHOTO / MARTIN BUREAUMARTIN BUREAU/AFP/Getty Images
People mourn in front of the French consulate in The Hague on November 14, 2015 2015, where flowers have benn laid in hommage for the victims of deadly attacks in Paris a day before. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. AFP PHOTO / ANP / BAS CZERWINSKI ** netherlands out **BAS CZERWINSKI/AFP/Getty Images
Flowers are laid in front of the French consulate in The Hague on November 14, 2015 2015, in hommage for the victims of deadly attacks in Paris a day before. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. AFP PHOTO / ANP / BAS CZERWINSKI ** netherlands out **BAS CZERWINSKI/AFP/Getty Images
A woman places a lit candle near flowers left at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
French Education minister Najat Vallaud-Belkacem arrives for a cabinet meeting at the Elysee Palace in Paris on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 14 which left more than 120 people dead. French President Francois Hollande today declared three days of national mourning following the deadly Paris attacks. AFP PHOTO / STEPHANE DE SAKUTINSTEPHANE DE SAKUTIN/AFP/Getty Images
Soldiers and police officers stand guard outside the Assemblee Nationale in Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a total of six separate attacks, which killed at least 128 people in Paris, one targeting the national stadium where the French and German national football teams were playing a friendly. AFP PHOTO / MARTIN BUREAUMARTIN BUREAU/AFP/Getty Images
French Social Affairs and Health minister Marisol Touraine arrives for a cabinet meeting at the Elysee Palace in Paris on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 14 which left more than 120 people dead. French President Francois Hollande today declared three days of national mourning following the deadly Paris attacks. AFP PHOTO / STEPHANE DE SAKUTINSTEPHANE DE SAKUTIN/AFP/Getty Images
A message reading "Pray for Paris" lies amongst floral tributes near the Bataclan concert hall in Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a total of six separate attacks, which killed at least 128 people in Paris, one targeting the national stadium where the French and German national football teams were playing a friendly. AFP PHOTO / PATRICK KOVARIKPATRICK KOVARIK/AFP/Getty Images
The flag of France flies at half mast at the French embassy in Helsinki, Finland on November 14, 2015 a day after deadly attacks in Paris. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. AFP PHOTO / Lehtikuva / VESA MOILANEN FINLAND OUTVESA MOILANEN/AFP/Getty Images
French soldiers of the United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) arrive to observe the Lebanese and national flags at half mast at the contingent headquarters in the southern Lebanese village of Deir Kifa on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around the French capital Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / MAHMOUD ZAYYATMAHMOUD ZAYYAT/AFP/Getty Images
Two men pay their repects before laying flowers at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
Flowers are laid on the Place des Droits de l'Homme (Human Rights Square) in Bordeaux on November 14, 2015 2015, in hommage for the victims of deadly attacks in Paris a day before. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. The placard reads "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" and "Shame, Cowards, Let's Resist". AFP PHOTO / JEAN-PIERRE MULLERJEAN-PIERRE MULLER/AFP/Getty Images
A police car is parked in front of the French embassy in Helsinki, Finland on November 14, 2015 a day after deadly attacks in Paris. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. AFP PHOTO / Lehtikuva / VESA MOILANEN FINLAND OUTVESA MOILANEN/AFP/Getty Images
A photo taken on November 14, 2015 shows a poster announcing the postponement of the French Top 14 rugby union match between Bordeaux and Clermont at the Chanban-Delmas stadium in Bordeaux, following the three days of national mourning after a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / JEAN PIERRE MULLERJEAN-PIERRE MULLER/AFP/Getty Images
French soldiers of the United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) observe the national flag at half mast at the contingent headquarters in the southern Lebanese village of Deir Kifa on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around the French capital Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / MAHMOUD ZAYYATMAHMOUD ZAYYAT/AFP/Getty Images
A French soldier of the United Nations Interim Forces in Lebanon (UNIFIL) observes the national flag at half mast at the contingent headquarters in the southern Lebanese village of Deir Kifa on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around the French capital Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / MAHMOUD ZAYYATMAHMOUD ZAYYAT/AFP/Getty Images
Flowers are laid on the Place des Droits de l'Homme (Human Rights Square) in Bordeaux on November 14, 2015 2015, in hommage for the victims of deadly attacks in Paris a day before. The string of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13, 2015 left more than 120 people dead, in the worst such violence in France's history. The placard reads "Liberty, Equality, Fraternity" and "Shame, Cowards, Let's Resist". AFP PHOTO / JEAN-PIERRE MULLERJEAN-PIERRE MULLER/AFP/Getty Images
French junior minister for Parliamentary Relations Jean-Marie Le Guen arrives for a cabinet meeting at the Elysee Palace in Paris on November 14, 2015, following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late on November 14 which left more than 120 people dead. French President Francois Hollande today declared three days of national mourning following the deadly Paris attacks. AFP PHOTO / STEPHANE DE SAKUTINSTEPHANE DE SAKUTIN/AFP/Getty Images
Two men pay their repects before laying flowers at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
SINGAPORE - NOVEMBER 14: Liverpool (R) and Manchester United players observe a minute of silence to remember the Paris attacks before The Castlewood Group Battle Of The Reds 2015 between Liverpool and Manchester United at National Stadium on November 14, 2015 in Singapore. (Photo by Suhaimi Abdullah/Getty Images)
A man close the Charles-Mathon stadium's entrance on November 14, 2015 in Oyonnax, central eastern France, as the European Rugby Champions Cup match between Oyonnax Rugby and Ulster Rugby is cancelled because of the three days of national mourning following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / ROMAIN LAFABREGUEROMAIN LAFABREGUE/AFP/Getty Images
French flag flies at half mast at the French embassy in Helsinki, Finland on Saturday, 14th Nov., 2015 following Paris attacks. REUTERS/Vesa Moilanen/LEHTIKUVA ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS PICTURE IS DISTRIBUTED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS. NO THIRD PARTY SALES. NOT FOR USE BY REUTERS THIRD PARTY DISTRIBUTORS. FINLAND OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN FINLAND.
A protester wears a pin with a black ribbon and the French flag during a demonstration of Spanish Civil Guards in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. Spanish Civil Guards demonstrated for better working conditions, and showed their solidarity with the victims of the deadly attacks in Paris by carrying black ribbons and French flags. REUTERS/Susana Vera
Women hold a banner reading "France is in mourning" during a gathering in solidarity for France a day after deadly attacks in Paris on November 14, 2015 in Stockholm. Two Swedish citizens may be among the victims of the attacks that killed more than 120 people in Paris, the foreign ministry said. AFP PHOTO / TT NEWS AGENCY / JOHAN NILSSON SWEDEN OUTJOHAN NILSSON/AFP/Getty Images
People stand in front of the Charles-Mathon stadium's entrance in Oyonnax on November 14, 2015 in Oyonnax, central eastern France, as the European Rugby Champions Cup match between Oyonnax Rugby and Ulster Rugby is cancelled because of the three days of national mourning following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / ROMAIN LAFABREGUEROMAIN LAFABREGUE/AFP/Getty Images
People lay flowers at a rail cordon close to the Bataclan theatre in the 11th district of Paris on November 14, 2015, the day after a series of attack on the city resulting in the deaths of more than 128 individuals. Some 80 people were gunned down at the Bataclan theatre in Paris late November 13, during a concert by the US band Eagles of Death Metal. AFP PHOTO / KENZO TRIBOUILLARDKENZO TRIBOUILLARD/AFP/Getty Images
People stand in front the Charles-Mathon stadium's closed ticket office on November 14, 2015 in Oyonnax, central eastern France, as the European Rugby Champions Cup match between Oyonnax Rugby and Ulster Rugby is cancelled because of the three days of national mourning following a series of coordinated attacks in and around Paris late November 13 which left more than 120 people dead. AFP PHOTO / ROMAIN LAFABREGUEROMAIN LAFABREGUE/AFP/Getty Images
Protesters hold black ribbons and a Spanish flag during a demonstration of Spanish Civil Guards in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. Spanish Civil Guards demonstrated for better working conditions, and showed their solidarity with the victims of the deadly attacks in Paris by carrying black ribbons and French flags. REUTERS/Susana Vera
A protester sticks a black ribbon printed on paper to a French flag during a demonstration of Spanish Civil Guards in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. Spanish Civil Guards demonstrated for better working conditions, and showed their solidarity with the victims of the deadly attacks in Paris by carrying black ribbons and French flags. REUTERS/Susana Vera
Rugby League - England v New Zealand - Third Test - DW Stadium, Wigan, England - 14/11/15 England players pause during a minute's silence in memory of the Paris attacks before the match Action Images via Reuters / Ed Sykes Livepic EDITORIAL USE ONLY.
Police patrol the Gare du Nord train station near a high-speed international Thalys train the morning after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Yves Herman TPX IMAGES OF THE DAY
Indian sand artist Sudarsan Pattnaik works on a sand sculpture to pay tribute to the victims of the attacks in Paris, in Odisha, India, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Stringer EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NO RESALES. NO ARCHIVE
Rugby League - England v New Zealand - Third Test - DW Stadium, Wigan, England - 14/11/15 England players pause during a minute's silence in memory of the Paris attacks before the match Action Images via Reuters / Ed Sykes Livepic EDITORIAL USE ONLY.
A protester holds a French flag with a black ribbon on it during a demonstration of Spanish Civil Guards in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. Spanish Civil Guards demonstrated for better working conditions, and showed their solidarity with the victims of the deadly attacks in Paris by carrying black ribbons and French flags. REUTERS/Susana Vera
A protester holds a French flag with a black ribbon on it during a demonstration of Spanish Civil Guards in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. Spanish Civil Guards demonstrated for better working conditions, and showed their solidarity with the victims of the deadly attacks in Paris by carrying black ribbons and French flags. REUTERS/Susana Vera
Candles, flowers and a leaflet with the slogan "I am Paris" are left in tribute to victims of Paris attacks in central Strasbourg, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Vincent Kessler
French military patrol near the Notre Dame Cathedral the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Yves Herman
Football Soccer - Russia v Portugal - European Friendly - Kuban Stadium - 14/11/15Russia's (L) and Portugal's national teams observe a minute of silence to commemorate victims of attacks in Paris.REUTERS/Maxim Shemetov
Norway's Prime Minister Erna Solberg reacts during a news conference on the 13 November Paris attacks in Oslo, Norway 14 November, 2015.REUTERS/ Vidar Ruud / NTB scanpix ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS PICTURE IS DISTRIBUTED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS. NORWAY OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN NORWAY. NO COMMERCIAL SALES.
Football Soccer - Russia v Portugal - European Friendly - Kuban Stadium - 14/11/15Russia's (L) and Portugal's national teams observe a minute of silence to commemorate victims of attacks in Paris.REUTERS/Maxim Shemetov
Norway's Prime Minister Erna Solberg reacts during a news conference on the 13 November Paris attacks in Oslo, Norway 14 November, 2015.REUTERS/ Vidar Ruud / NTB scanpix ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS PICTURE IS DISTRIBUTED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS. NORWAY OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN NORWAY. NO COMMERCIAL SALES.
Tourists pause to take pictures as French military patrol near the Notre Dame Cathedral (not seen) the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Yves Herman
Candles and a leaflet with the slogan "I am Paris" are left in tribute to victims of Paris attacks in central Strasbourg, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Vincent Kessler
Mourners bring candles and flowers to the French embassy to commemorate the victims of the Paris attacks in Helsinki, Finland on Saturday, 14th Nov., 2015. REUTERS/Vesa Moilanen/LEHTIKUVA ATTENTION EDITORS - THIS IMAGE WAS PROVIDED BY A THIRD PARTY. FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS. THIS PICTURE IS DISTRIBUTED EXACTLY AS RECEIVED BY REUTERS, AS A SERVICE TO CLIENTS. NO THIRD PARTY SALES. NOT FOR USE BY REUTERS THIRD PARTY DISTRIBUTORS. FINLAND OUT. NO COMMERCIAL OR EDITORIAL SALES IN FINLAND.
Police secure the area near the screened-off facade of the Bataclan Cafe and its adjoining concert hall the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, France, November 14, 2014. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier
Memorial bouquets of flowers are placed on barriers near the Bataclan concert hall the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier
French national and municipal police stand guard outside a commercial center in NIce, France, November 14, 2015, the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris. REUTERS/Eric Gaillard
People react in front of the Carillon cafe and the Petit Cambodge restaurant in Paris Saturday Nov. 14, 2015, a day after over 120 people were killed in a series of shooting and explosions. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)
A girl places a paper, carrying a peace sign featuring Eiffel Tower, next to candles and flowers in memory of victims of deadly attacks in Paris, outside the French embassy in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Sergio Perez
A French policeman stands guard outside a commercial center in NIce, France, November 14, 2015, the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris. REUTERS/Eric Gaillard
An unnamed man brings his portable grand piano and plays John Lennon's Imagine by the Bataclan, Paris, one of the venues for the attacks in the French capital which are feared to have killed around 120 people. PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Issue date: Saturday November 14, 2015. A state of emergency has been declared in France after a night of horror in the capital. There were two suicide attacks and a bombing near the Stade de France stadium, shootings at restaurants and a massacre inside a popular music venue in what is the worst violence to hit France since the Second World War. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: John Walton/PA Wire
A woman lights a candle next to flowers placed in memory of victims of deadly attacks in Paris, outside the French embassy in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. The papers read in French, "Spain with France" and "We are you, All together, Courage France". REUTERS/Sergio Perez
Women place papers next to candles and flowers in memory of victims of deadly attacks in Paris, outside the French embassy in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. The papers read in French, "Spain with France" and "We are you, All together, Courage France". REUTERS/Sergio Perez
A woman places flowers in memory of victims following a series of deadly attacks in Paris outside French embassy in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Sergio Perez
The French (L) and Spanish flags flutter at half mast in memory of victims following a series of deadly attacks in Paris in front of Cibeles Fountain in Madrid, Spain, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Sergio Perez
Tourists pause to take pictures as French military patrol near the Notre Dame Cathedral (not seen) the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Yves Herman
A white rose is attached to a barrier as a French policeman with an automatic weapon secures the area near the Bataclan concert hall the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris, France, November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Benoit Tessier
Candles are lit as people gather in Hong Kong, Saturday, Nov. 14, 2015, to mourn for the victims killed in Friday's attacks in Paris. French President Francois Hollande said more than 120 people died Friday night in shootings at Paris cafes, suicide bombings near France's national stadium and a hostage-taking slaughter inside a concert hall. (AP Photo/Kin Cheung)
People listen to speakers at a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire
People listen to speakers at a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire
People react in front of the Carillon cafe and the Petit Cambodge restaurant in Paris Saturday Nov. 14, 2015, a day after over 120 people were killed in a series of shooting and explosions. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)
Armed French police stand guard outside a commercial center in Nice, France, November 14, 2015, the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris. REUTERS/Eric Gaillard
Dried blood can be seen on the window of the Carillon cafe in Paris Saturday Nov. 14, 2015, a day after over 120 people were killed in a series of shooting and explosions. (AP Photo/Jerome Delay)
People hold a French national flag whilst listening to speakers at a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire
A woman attends a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire
The sun rises over a chalk memorial to the victims of the attacks in Paris, in Union Square Park in the Manhattan borough of New York November 14, 2015. REUTERS/Lucas Jackson
People light candles outside the French embassy in Seoul, South Korea, Saturday, Nov. 14, 2015, for the victims killed in Friday's attacks in Paris. French President Francois Hollande said more than 120 people died Friday night in shootings at Paris cafes, suicide bombings near France's national stadium and a hostage-taking slaughter inside a concert hall. (AP Photo/Ahn Young-joon)
French people living in Thailand hold candles for the victims of Friday's attacks at the Alliance Francaise in Bangkok, Thailand, Saturday, Nov. 14, 2015. French police are hunting for possible accomplices of assailants who terrorized Paris concert-goers, cafe diners and soccer fans in the countrys deadliest peacetime attacks. (AP Photo/Sakchai Lalit)
German Chancellor Angela Merkel along with government ministers writes in the book of condolence at the French embassy in Berlin, Saturday Nov. 14, 2015. French President Francois Hollande said more than 120 people died Friday night in shootings at Paris cafes, suicide bombings near France's national stadium and a hostage-taking slaughter inside a concert hall. The ministers from left, Justice Minister Heiko Mass, Head of the Chancellery Peter Altmaier, Economy Minister Sigmar Gabriel, Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure Alexander Dobrindt, Defense Minister Ursula von der Leyen and Interior Minister Thomas de Maiziere. (AP Photo/Markus Schreiber)
Two women attend a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire
French national and municipal police stand guard outside a commercial center in Nice, France, November 14, 2015, the day after a series of deadly attacks in Paris. REUTERS/Eric Gaillard
A man listens to speakers at a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire
People attend a vigil in Trafalgar Square in London, following the terror attacks which killed at least 127 people in Paris last night . PRESS ASSOCIATION Photo. Picture date: Saturday November 14, 2015. See PA story POLICE Paris. Photo credit should read: Hannah McKay/PA Wire

The report says: "Khalid Masood (Westminster) and Salman Abedi (Manchester) had both been subjects of interest, and Khuram Butt (London Bridge) remained under active investigation.

"Substantial and appropriate coverage was in place around key individuals, and mechanisms designed to assess risk were working as intended.

File photo dated 23/05/17 of a police officer on the streets the morning after a suspected terrorist attack at the Manchester Arena at the end of a concert by US star Ariana Grande left 19 dead. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of a police officer on the streets the morning after a suspected terrorist attack at the Manchester Arena at the end of a concert by US star Ariana Grande left 19 dead. Peter Byrne/PA Wire

"MI5 and counter-terrorism policing got a great deal right; particularly in the case of Manchester, they could have succeeded had the cards fallen differently."

In response to the findings, Home Secretary Amber Rudd said the blame for the attacks "lies squarely" with the terrorists.

File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire

Abedi was not under active investigation when he detonated a suicide device at Manchester Arena in May.

But Mr Anderson's review says that MI5 came by unspecified intelligence in the months before the attack which, "had its true significance been properly understood", would have caused an investigation into him to be opened.

File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after reports of an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire
File photo dated 23/05/17 of emergency services at Manchester Arena after reports of an explosion at the venue during an Ariana Grande gig. Peter Byrne/PA Wire

The report says: "It is unknowable whether such an investigation would have allowed Abedi's plans to be pre-empted and thwarted. MI5 assesses that it would not."

Abedi was also identified by a separate "data-washing exercise" as falling within a small number of former subjects of interest who merited further consideration.

However, a meeting scheduled to consider the results of this process had not been held at the time of the bombing, in which 22 people were killed.

An opportunity was also missed to place Abedi on "ports action" after he travelled to Libya in April.

The report says: "It is conceivable that the Manchester attack ... might have been averted had the cards fallen differently:

Westminster attacker Masood was known to police and MI5 for association with extremists but he was a "closed" subject of interest at the time of the atrocity in March.

Intelligence officers and police had no reason to anticipate his murderous actions, according to the report.

It also reveals how, in the days prior to his attack, Masood conducted reconnaissance of Westminster Bridge in person and online, and browsed YouTube for videos relating to terrorism.

Minutes before he struck, the terrorist shared a "Jihad document" with numerous WhatsApp contacts.

Butt, who led the three-strong gang behind the London Bridge van and knife attack in June, was the principal subject of an MI5 investigation from mid-2015 until the date of the deadly assault.

The report says material relating to Butt received in the two weeks prior to the attack added little to the intelligence picture and did not identify activity that led up to it.

Another of the London Bridge gang, Youssef Zaghba, was placed on an EU warning list in March last year.

However, a marker which would have automatically identified him as a national security risk was deleted by Italian authorities in January.

It was also revealed that, in June 2016, MI5 received an inquiry from Italian authorities about Zaghba but the agency has no record of responding - "noting by way of possible explanation that it arrived in the incorrect mailbox".

The request was not chased up by Italian officials.

"The story is not a happy one, but, as MI5 points out, even if the request had been actioned, it would have resulted in a nil return," the report adds.

Zaghba, and the third London Bridge attacker, Rachid Redouane, were never investigated by MI5.

In the fourth incident covered by the review, one man died after a van crashed into a group near the Finsbury Park mosque in north London in June.

Darren Osborne, 48, from Cardiff, has been charged with murder.

Mr Anderson's report says police had no intelligence to suggest Osborne was going to commit the alleged attack, while MI5 held no intelligence on him.

The Parsons Green attack in September is not covered by the review.

Police and MI5 have foiled nine plots since the Westminster attack in March, in addition to the terrorist incidents that have occurred.

Counter-terror teams are running about 500 live investigations involving 3,000 individuals at any one time, while there is also a wider pool of 20,000 subjects of previous probes.

Mr Anderson, a former anti-terror laws watchdog, said: "The excellent recent record of MI5 and the police in defending the UK from terrorist attack came to a brutal end this year.

"Despite elevated threat levels, the fundamentals are sound and the great majority of attacks continue to be thwarted."

The full internal reviews, which are highly classified and run to more than 1,100 pages, contain 126 recommendations.

Mr Anderson said: "In particular, MI5 and the police have identified the need to use data more effectively, to share knowledge more widely, to improve their own collaboration and to assess and investigate terrorist threats on a uniform basis, whatever the ideology that inspires them."

Ms Rudd said: "There will be those who seek to apportion blame for the attacks.

"We should be united in our clarity that it lies squarely with those whose cowardly acts killed 36 innocent people this year, and those who encouraged them."

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