South Korea's Hyo Joo Kim shot a record low major championship round of 61 to take a four-stroke lead into the second round of the final major of the season in Evian-les-Bains.
The 19-year-old's 10-birdie round eclipsed by one stroke the previous record held jointly by Minea Blomqvist and Lorena Ochoa, and is two better than the men's best held by multiple players at 63.
Australia's Karrie Webb is in second place on 65, one stroke ahead of another Korean, Mi Jung Hur.
However, Michelle Wie's return lasted just 13 holes before she was forced to retire after aggravating a finger injury.
Wie sat on a five-over-par 56 when she conceded she could not continue.
The US Open champion has been sidelined for a month with the injury and only started playing full shots last week.
But she appeared determined to return in time for Evian, saying earlier this week: "I kind of have the mindset where I'm going to hit 230-yard drives.
"I'm definitely one club less, not hitting as far as I want to. At the same time, I'm just really excited that I can hit balls, I can come out here and play."
Wie revealed after her abridged round that she had suffered pain from a stress reaction in her right index finger.
She said: "I was out there and I knew I should have stopped earlier but I was having so much fun out there I wanted to keep playing.
"But it got to the point where it was too painful. So I just made the smart decision to not play."
Kim's record-breaking round soon swung the attention away from Wie's withdrawal and was all the more remarkable for being the Korean's debut major.
The nerveless teenager turned professional after the 2012 Evian Masters and has risen to 20th in the world on the back of four professional victories.
Kim said: "I like a hard course, so I like it. I felt very comfortable today."
But Kim will be chased all the way by seven-times major winner Webb, who would have pulled even closer to her rival had it not been for a bogey on her final hole.
Webb said: "Any time you're in the hunt at any tournament it's what you work for.
"We don't get to play another major for a couple of months, so it would be great to have a chance coming down 18 on Sunday."