Women who have breast implants and go on to contract breast cancer have a greater risk of dying from the disease than those without.
Researchers said that patients with cosmetic implants have a 38pc higher risk of dying from breast cancer than women who do not have implants.
The study also found that women with implants could be diagnosed with breast cancer at a later stage than those without.
Previous research has suggested that implants can make it more difficult to detect cancer at an early stage because they can create shadows on mammograms.
The authors, based in Canada, examined data from 12 studies which examined the stage at which breast cancer is diagnosed in patients with and without breast augmentation.
They found that women with cosmetic breast implants had a 26pc increased risk of being diagnosed at a later stage of cancer than women without implants.
They also found that women with implants had a 38pc greater risk of death from breast cancer than women without.
However, the authors stressed that the findings should be treated with "caution".
They called for further investigations into the long-term health effects of breast implants.
"This systematic review suggests that women with cosmetic breast implants have later stage tumours at diagnosis of breast cancer," they wrote.
"In our second meta-analysis, the results show a higher risk of breast cancer specific mortality among women with breast cancer who have implants compared with women with breast cancer without implants.
"Nevertheless, the overall estimate should be interpreted with caution because this meta-analysis included a relatively small number of studies."