No place for strong women? A look inside the Vatican walls
After former Irish president Mary McAleese failed to make the grade as a speaker at a conference due to take place in the Vatican, our reporter looks at the arcane mysteries of the world's smallest country
It prints its own postage stamps, mints its own coins, issues passports and licence plates, and has its own flag and anthem.
Yet its citizens have no voting rights and its army sources its members in another country. The Vatican is a mass of contradictions. It is the smallest country in the world, just 44 hectares enclosed by 3kms of border; yet it houses one of the most eye-watering art collections on the planet, housed in beautiful age-old architecture.
Its customs and ceremonies appear arcane to many, yet it also runs its own 21st century mini media empire combining television, radio, newspaper ( L'Osservatore Romano), social media and web operations. In some respects, its contradictions are embodied by the Swiss Guard.
The world's smallest standing army appears to be strictly a ceremonial outfit as they parade in colourful renaissance-era uniforms, yet its soldiers are highly skilled marksmen ready for 21st century challenges.
Lying close to Rome's River Tiber, there are five entrances into Vatican City, each guarded by the Swiss Guards and the Gendarmerie Corps of Vatican City State.
Due to its small size, several of its offices are located in buildings outside Vatican City itself, in places such as Rome's Piazza Pio XII, Via della Conciliazione and in Piazza di Spagna. According to the Lateran Treaty, signed in 1929, these buildings enjoy the same status as embassies and foreign diplomatic missions abroad.
The Vatican enjoys a privileged relationship with Italy, thanks to the Lateran Treaty which recognised its sovereignty and compensated the Church for its loss of the Papal States. Dr Tamara Grdzelidze is Georgia's ambassador to the Holy See.
In her view, the Vatican is a peculiar place - not like any other country or any other international organisation. "It's something in-between." As a sovereign State, it is universally recognised under international law. In political terms, it is a non-hereditary monarchy in which the Pope exercises supreme legislative, executive, and judicial power.
While the Vatican State's central government is made up of the Pope, a state council, a Pontifical Commission, Governor and Secretary of State, the Holy See is administered by the Curia. It is a highly structured entity divided into Secretariats, Dicasteries, Congregations, Pontifical Councils, Pontifical Commissions, tribunals, and other offices. The principal departments of the Curia are dicasteries and one of the newest is the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life, which is headed up by Irish Cardinal Kevin Farrell, who made headlines last week when he refused permission for Mary McAleese and two other speakers to speak at an event in the Vatican to mark International Women's Day next month. The conference was subsequently moved to another venue in Rome.
McAleese had been due to take part in a panel discussion on "Why Women Matter".
One of the most powerful offices is the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith, which in former times was known as the Inquisition. But the administrative outreach is not confined to these Vatican offices. As the British ambassador to the Holy See, Sally Axworthy, observed, even though the Vatican is "the world's smallest state", it has a global reach impacting millions through its executive arm, aka the bishops' conferences, around the world.
In an interview with TFI News, Magdalena Wolinska-Riedi, the Polish wife of a Swiss Guard, who works as a translator, compared living in Vatican City to living in a small village. "One difference is the security, with everybody observed, every corner monitored, gendarmerie at the gates. They watch when you come and go."
On the up side, there are no taxes, and they have access to duty-free shopping, including luxury brands and cheaper petrol. According to Wolinska-Riedi, most Vatican residents go shopping "abroad" to Rome since food is very expensive in Vatican City. Still, life inside the walls has its drawbacks. Residents must be home - and guests must leave - before midnight when all the gates are closed.
The women question
The ban on Mary McAleese highlighted the question of how women are regarded by the Vatican. Tina Beattie, professor of Catholic Studies at Roehampton College in London, is involved in the Voices of Faith conference on International Women's Day. Speaking to BBC Radio Ulster's Sunday Sequence programme last week, she warned that the women invited to events at the Vatican tend to be handpicked and are known to be the most conservative voices who will tell the organising prelates what they want to hear.
She called on Pope Francis to "act on his commitment to put women into positions of leadership in the Church and not just women who say what the cardinals want to hear".
Traditionally, the Vatican's women comprised a few nuns who tended prelates' living quarters and the wives and daughters of members of the Swiss Guards. In February 2013, Worldcrunch reported that there were just 30 women out of 800 citizens of Vatican City. However, of 4,000 staff approximately 750 are female and that number is growing. In 2016, an association for the Vatican's female employees, Donne in Vaticano or Women in the Vatican, was established.
On January 1 last year, Barbara Jatta was appointed director of the Vatican Museums, the first woman to hold the role. Addressing the Association of Austrian Catholic Publicists on a visit to Vienna, journalist Gudrun Sailer, who works for the German section of Vatican Radio said: "There is a fresh wind blowing in the Vatican as far as women's role in the Church is concerned. The Francis effect has clearly made its mark."
Sailer noted that one fifth of Vatican employees are women. "And they are not doing the cleaning jobs, moreover, as those are done by men. Most of the women are academics," she said.
Her research shows that the first woman to be hired in the Vatican was a seamstress who arrived under the pontificate of Benedict XV in 1915. Today, more than 40pc of the Holy See's female employees have university degrees.
The Vatican's Art
Up to six million people visit the Vatican's 54 galleries annually and get to see just 20,000 of the museum's 70,000 works.
One of the locations on every 'to do' list is the Sistine Chapel where Michelangelo's awe-inspiring frescos depict stories from the book of Genesis. It is rightly considered an incredible feat of artistic achievement. Elsewhere, in the Room of the Segnatura in the Vatican Museums, visitors can see Raphael's 'The School of Athens' (1509) in which the artist paid tribute to some of the great philosophers of ancient Greece, including Plato and Aristotle. Those more interested in sculpture will be drawn to 'Laocoön and His Sons', one of the finest examples of ancient Greek sculpture, dating from 30-40BC. The discovery of this work in a vineyard near the basilica of Santa Maria Maggiore in Rome in 1506 prompted Pope Julius II to set up the Vatican Museum. Today, it has one of the world's best collections of classical sculptures and Renaissance art.
Financing the Vatican
According to Christopher Lamb, Rome Correspondent of the international Catholic weekly, The Tablet, the Vatican is routinely in the red. In 2015, it recorded a €12.4m budget deficit though this in itself was an improvement on 2014 when the deficit totalled €26m. "While the frescoes of the Sistine Chapel smack of unimaginable riches, they are almost impossible to value. The Vatican is asset rich but cash poor," Lamb explained.
Knowledge of the true state of the Vatican's finances has until recent times been as elusive as the third secret of Fatima.
This is partly due to labyrinthine accounting practices which have flourished for years across the various Vatican departments which operate with a silo mentality.
The appointment in February 2014 of Cardinal George Pell as the Vatican's financial czar at the Secretariat for the Economy, saw things begin to change. Transparency and international accounting standards have been introduced and departments are required now to submit their accounts to the Vatican's financial watchdog. There has been a clampdown on suspicious transactions.
Even the Vatican bank, long a source of embarrassment for its financial improprieties, now has its accounts independently audited.
According to Francis X Rocca, writing in the Wall Street Journal: "Accounting at the Vatican has never followed unified policies. Annual reports aren't released, different departments use different accounting principles, data are inconsistent and not comparable.
Before Cardinal Pell's appointment, a panel of cardinals charged with economic oversight met just twice a year. Budgets didn't exist, and expenditures weren't itemised."
As recently as last year, Cardinal Pell discovered €1.4bn "not on the balance sheet". The 76-year-old prelate's root-and-branch reform has been stalled, however, since he returned to his native Australia to answer charges of historical clerical sexual abuse. A court hearing is expected in March.
Vatican revenues come largely from the Vatican Museums, its real-estate holdings, its investment portfolio and its shops selling tax-free products. Dioceses around the world also send millions each year to the Vatican.
Other sources of wealth include the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See (APSA) which has an extensive real-estate portfolio.
A controversial bank
"While there are no official figures, the total property assets of the Vatican have been conservatively estimated at €9-10bn," according to Lamb. But APSA doesn't publish any publicly obtainable accounts.
And then there is the Vatican bank, officially known as the Institute for the Works of Religion (IOR).
Two of the bank's former officials were this week convicted of financial mismanagement by a court of the Vatican City State.
Dogged by scandals for years and accusations of facilitating money laundering, the organisation's recent annual reports have shown increased profits. According to Lamb, "it has assets worth €5.7bn - small by international banking standards - with account holders now strictly controlled."
The introduction of new anti-money laundering rules and legislation designed to prevent the financing of terrorism forced a cultural change.
Pope Francis is on record as saying: "If we don't know how to look after money, which we can see, how can we look after the souls of the faithful, which we cannot?"
The Irish in the Vatican
* Cardinal Séan Brady is a member of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity (above)
* Cardinal Kevin Farrell is Prefect of the Dicastery for the Laity, Family and Life
* Archbishop Diarmuid Martin is a member of the Secretariat for Communication (above)
* Archbishop Eugene Nugent (Killaloe), Apostolic Nuncio in Haiti
* Archbishop Kieran O'Reilly SMA is a member of the Congregation for the Institutes of Consecrated Life and for Societies of Apostolic Life
* Bishop Brian Farrell is the Secretary to the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity and vice-president of its Commission for Religious Relations with the Jews
* Bishop Paul Tighe is Secretary to the Pontifical Council for Culture (below)
* Mgr Joseph Murphy (Cloyne) working at the Secretariat of State
* Mgr Michael Crotty (Cloyne) in the Papal Diplomatic Service
* Mgr Seamus Horgan (Killaloe) in the papal Diplomatic Service
* Mgr John Kennedy (Dublin) is head of the disciplinary office of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
* Fr Enda Murphy (Kilmore) working at the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
* Fr Eamonn McLaughlin (Raphoe) working at the Congregation for the Clergy
* Fr Colin Rothery (Dublin) is currently working in the Dicastery for Laity, Family and Life, in preparation and planning for the World Meeting of Families 2018 in Dublin in August.