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ONE contributor to the study, Dr Eddie Molloy, a consultant in strategy and large-scale change, suggests that the lack of accountability in the public service identified in the Ryan Report has still not changed.

The Wright Report on the Department of Finance "suggested that warnings about the impending collapse of the Irish economy were only given orally", he says, while the Nyberg Report on the banking crisis revealed the practice of 'hear-no-evil-see-no-evil' and the Regling and Watson reports on the fiscal crisis mentioned "the culture of deference".

Dr Molloy says "a system in which incompetence, culpable impotence and even criminal negligence carry no sanctions, and where discretionary rewards intended for exceptional performance are dished out indiscriminately can no longer be accepted."

"Accountability without consequences is meaningless," he said.

One of the startling figures in the report is the abysmal prosecution rate for those who were abused in residential institutions. Amnesty's study notes that of 173,000 children who went through the system, 30,000 said they were abused; 14,500 claimed compensation to the Redress Board; 11 files went to the Director of Public Prosecutions and three people were charged.

Sunday Independent