Friday 19 January 2018

Section 2: Long questions

The questions here are based on Section A of the syllabus: The Human Habitat.

Fold mountains

Sample question: 2007, Q3 (d); 10 marks

With the aid of a diagram, explain how fold mountains are formed. Name one range of fold mountains in Ireland.

Where two tectonic plates are moved towards each other by convection currents within the earth's mantle a convergent plate boundary is formed. Denser Oceanic crust will always be subducted under Continental crust and volcanic fold mountains will be formed, such as the Andes. The Andes were formed by the subduction of the Nazca Plate underneath the South American Plate. Where two continental plates converge no subduction will happen. As the plates collide crust will be buckled and folded. The ridges and mountains are called anticlines, while the valleys between them are called synclines. The Wicklow Mountains are examples of fold mountains in Ireland.


Sample question: 2009, Q 4 (a); 10 marks

(i)Name one place where earthquakes occur. Along the San Andreas fault in California.

(ii)Examine the diagram showing the shockwaves of an earthquake and name the areas labelled A and B.

A = The focus, B = The epicentre

(iii)Briefly describe the cause of earthquakes.

Convection currents within the mantle cause tectonic plates to move. As the plates slide past each other at transform plate boundaries and collide with one another at convergent plate boundaries they can become snagged. Once this happens, pressure begins to build up along the fault line as the convection currents continue underneath the crust. Eventually the built up pressure will become so great that there will be a sudden jolting movement and the plates become unsnagged. This release of pressure sends tremors outwards from the focus through the crust. Shaking of the ground is likely to be strongest at the epicentre, which is the point at the surface directly above the focus. The strongest recorded earthquake happened in Chile in 1960. It measured 9.5 on the Richter Scale and was caused by the subduction of the Nazca Plate underneath the South American Plate.

Karst Landscape/Limestone

Sample question: 2011, Q1 (a)

(i)Name the category of rock in which limestone belongs. Sedimentary.

(ii)Name a location where limestone is found. The Burren, Co. Clare.

(iii)Explain, with the aid of a diagram, how any one Karst underground landform is formed. Rainwater absorbs carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and the soil horizon. This forms a weak carbonic acid (H2O + Co2 = H2CO3). This carbonic acid dissolves the insoluble calcium carbonate of limestone by changing it into soluble calcium bicarbonate. In this process of carbonation limestone is carried away in solution,and joints and bedding planes are widened to form caves and caverns.

Urban geography

Sample question: 2007, Q4 (b); 10 marks

The picture shows an area in Dublin that has undergone urban renewal.

(i)What is urban renewal? Urban renewal involves the replacement of sub-standard housing, often in deprived inner city areas, with modern housing and improved services and facilities for residents of the area.

(ii)Explain how urban renewal has benefitted local people in one Irish urban area that you have studied. Ballymun in Dublin has undergone the process of urban renewal. High rise apartment towers have been demolished and replaced by terraced and duplex housing units. Residents can now access their homes easily and safely without worrying about lifts not working. A new town centre focused on a plaza and main street was designed to help foster a greater sense of community amongst the residents. A tree planting scheme was introduced to improve the general appearance of the area. Investment has been made in leisure facilities such as public parks and sports and youth clubs in the area.

Ordnance survey map and aerial photograph

Sample question: 2007, Q5; 30 marks

A. Draw a sketch map of the area shown on the Ordnance Survey map.

On your sketch map show and name each of the following features:

• The built up area of Drogheda

• An industrial estate within the built up area of Drogheda

• The most northerly antiquity shown on the map

• A motorway

• The county boundary (12 marks)

B. Using the Ordnance Survey map name and describe two different tourist attractions shown in the Bettystown and Laytown area in the east and south east of the map.(12)

Answer: There is a sandy beach at O 164 734. Here tourists can enjoy water-based leisure activities such as swimming and fishing. There is an 18 hole golf course at O 158 743. Here tourists can enjoy a round of golf on a links golf course which is likely to be very well drained and therefore playable throughout the year.

C. Name and locate two different land-uses shown on the Aerial Photograph. (6)

Answer: 1. There is land with a residential function in the right foreground where there is a housing estate. 2. There is land with a religious function in the centre-middleground where a large Church is located.


Sample question: 2008, Q4 (b); 10 marks

Examine the weather map.

(i)What name is given to the numbered lines shown on this map? Isobars

(ii)What name is given to the feature labelled A on the map? Warm front

(iii)What name is given to the feature labelled B on the map? Cold front

(iv) What is the atmospheric pressure at C on the map? 1024 mb

(v)Describe the weather conditions that you would expect to find at D on the map.

Temperatures are mild for January. Winds are not very strong, although there is a good breeze. It will be cloudy with some showers.

Irish Independent

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