Example: 2008 Question 6
D. International relations in the 20th Century
(i)Give two reasons why Fascist leaders gained support in Europe in the 1920s and the 1930s. (2)
(ii)Write an account of one of the following:
(a)Mussolini's political achievements, 1922-1939.
(b)Education and youth control in Nazi Germany.
(c)Hitler's treatment of the Jews, 1933-1939.(10)
(iii)Give two reasons why the League of Nations failed to keep the peace in Europe during the 1930s.(4)
(iv)Choose topic 1 or 2 or 3 below:
Topic 1 - Rise of the Superpowers.
Name one of the leaders shown above (a), (b) or (c) and write an account of a major crisis in the Cold War, 1945-63, in which that leader was involved.(14)
(i)1. The fascists were supported by those who feared a Communist Revolution.
2. The fascists promised to introduce public-works schemes to solve the unemployment problem created by the Great Depression.
(ii)(c) Hitler's treatment of the Jews, 1933-39
Between 1933 and 1939 the main purpose of Hitler's harsh treatment of the Jews was to force them to emigrate from Germany. However, the international economic recession of the time, known as the Great Depression, meant that countries such as the USA, Britain, France and Poland were unwilling to open their borders to any large scale immigration of German Jews. SRS When Hitler bacame chancellor in January 1933 Jews in the USA, UK and France organised a boycott of the products of Nazi Germany. In response Hitler and Goebbels organised a boycott of Jewish businesses in April 1933. Under the 'Aryanisation' policy Jewish business owners were forced to sell their businesses to 'Aryans' at hugely discounted prices. SRS In 1935 a series of laws known as the Nuremberg Laws were introduced. They excluded Jews from German citizenship and banned them from marrying or having any sexual relations with 'Aryans'. SRS In November 1938 a young Jew, Herschel Grynszpan, shot and killed a German diplomat in Paris. Hitler and Josef Goebbels used this incident as a pretext to launch a pogrom against Germany's Jews. On Kristallnacht (the night of the broken glass) all of Germany's synagogues were burned down and 91 Jews were murdered and over 30,000 were arrested and detained in concentration camps. SRS
Marking scheme: 4 x SRSs at 2 marks each + overall mark 2 = 10
(iii)1 The League of Nations was badly weakened by the fact that the richest most powerful nation in the world, the USA, was not a member.2
2 The experience of WW1 had left many in Britain and France with a horror of war. As a result people in these countries supported the policy of appeasement which greatly increased the strength and aggression of Nazi Germany.2
(iv)John F. Kennedy is shown in photograph (b). He was involved in the Cuban Missile Crisis.
The USA placed a trade embargo on Cuba hoping that this would damage Fidel Castro's Communist regime in Cuba. Cuba then turned to the Soviet Union as a trade partner and the Soviet leader, Nikita Khrushchev saw this as an opportunity to gain a military ally on an island that lay just 90 miles off the coast of Florida. SRS In October 1962 US U2 spyplanes photographed Soviet-built nuclear missile bases on the island of Cuba. SRS JFK announced that Cuba was being placed under 'quarantine' and US navy ships enforced a naval blockade to prevent any more Soviet ships reaching the island. SRS As the crisis escalated it appeared that nuclear war was imminent. When Soviet ships stopped before reaching the US ships enforcing the blockade, the US Secretary of State Dean Rusk said "We were eyeball to eyeball and I think the other fella just blinked." SRS In negotiations between Bobby Kennedy and the Soviet ambassador in Washington DC it was agreed that the Soviet missiles would be removed from Cuba.SRS In return the US promised not to invade Cuba. They also promised to remove their Jupiter missiles from Turkey, although details of this part of the deal were to be kept secret. SRS
Marking scheme: 6 x SRSs at 2 marks each + overall mark 2 = 12