Storm Francis brought more than 110kmh winds and torrential rainfall to Ireland last week.
The second Atlantic storm to hit the country in just four days left in its wake a stark message about climate change which was best underlined in a west Cork town.
Bantry does not sit on a major, open river - and the devastating flooding it suffered on Monday night was not caused by a coastal storm surge or rising sea levels.
Instead, the town lies at the foot of a ring of surrounding mountains and was overwhelmed by rainfall, with 25mm falling in just two hours as Storm Francis raged overhead.
An estimated 53mm of rain fell in just over 24 hours. So great was the power of the water that drains and culverts couldn't cope with the deluge and 'popped', with overhead roads being split apart and rain run-off cascading down town centre streets.
Bantry Business Association official Diarmuid Murphy raced to check his property on Monday night and found a river running down the Main Street.
"I drive a jeep and I didn't think I would get through it," he said.
Damage was caused to more than 50 homes and businesses. Bantry Vodafone store owner Ger Egan had his store completely refitted the previous week - and arrived in the early hours of Tuesday morning to find his refurbished shop under almost 30cm of murky flood waters.
Just four days earlier, his Vodafone store in Skibbereen narrowly missed being flooded in the wake of Storm Ellen.
"It was heartbreaking to see," he said.
While figures are still being assessed, some 70mm of rain is believed to have fallen on mountains across the south west in less than 24 hours.
The deluge hit waterways still struggling to cope with the torrential rainfall left in Storm Ellen's wake.
The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) admitted climate change will now raise issues such as flooding with communities nationwide that traditionally never had to worry about water-related problems.
A Met Éireann study found that a 30-year running mean of national annual rainfall indicated an increase in average national rainfall of approximately 70mm over the last two decades. Nine of the Met Éireann records for highest monthly rainfall totals have been set over the past 30 years.
Put simply, Ireland is dealing with a less extreme model of what is happening in the UK where summers are getting searingly hotter and extreme weather events such as storms with high winds and torrential rainfall are becoming more frequent and damaging.
The UK this summer recorded its second highest temperature ever as well as multiple 'tropical nights', which have only been recorded six times since 1960.
While Storm Francis brought misery to west Cork, it threatened to dump 90mm of rainfall over northern England and Scotland - sufficient to overwhelm all bar specialised flood defences.
Storms Ophelia, Darwin, Lorenzo and Ali amply proved the impact Mother Nature can have on modern Irish society.
Transport Minister and Green Party leader Eamon Ryan warned the clock is ticking over climate change.
While the Paris Climate Agreement aims to limit global temperature hikes to 1.5 degrees above pre-industrial levels, since 2016 rising temperatures have made that target appear increasingly fragile.
"These figures are a reminder of the scale of the challenge we face.
"The signatories to the Paris treaty, particularly those in Europe, must hold the line," he said.
"We have everything to gain from changing our food, energy, transport and economic systems to a cleaner and more efficient economic model."
However, protecting existing infrastructure in the short to medium term poses a mammoth challenge.
One Dublin firm, Gamma Location Intelligence (GLI), estimates more than 70,000 homes face a serious threat by 2050 from both flooding and coastal erosion.
GLI scientist Richard Cantwell warned that rising sea levels could pose an historic challenge for the State.
"In a worst case scenario, we could be looking at sea levels rising at between three and six metres by 2050," he said.
That would be catastrophic not only for flood-prone cities like Cork and Galway but would also leave low-lying parts of Dublin underwater. Major flood challenges would also be faced by Louth, Clare, Limerick and Waterford.
For Cork, even if the scenario proves only 50pc accurate, the city will face a flooding threat that will dwarf the €100m-plus in damage caused by the historic 2009 deluge, which forced the evacuation of a city centre hospital and left over 40,000 people without drinking water supply for weeks.
Cork is still embroiled in rows over which flood defence model is best for Ireland's most low-lying city with the project estimated at €130m.
Former flood relief minister Kevin 'Boxer' Moran warned in 2017 that Ireland faced having to spend €1bn by 2030 to ensure national flood defences are fit for purpose.
The OPW insisted expensive flood defence schemes work when fully completed and cited Mallow, Clonmel and Fermoy as examples of how homes can be protected.
Office of Public Works Minister Patrick O'Donovan toured flood-hit areas twice over the past week.
"It is not a funding issue - I have been very clear about that. Successive Governments have taken climate change seriously. We have to be asking ourselves whether some of the building taking place should be taking place.
"We know in towns across the country where Catchment Flood Risk Assessment and Management has identified flood risks and that planning permission was (still) granted."