These beautiful images show deer standing in the late afternoon autumn sunlight in Phoenix Park, Dublin yesterday, as the rutting season begins.
Young fallow deer bucks are feeling energetic and are vying for the attention of the park's does.
By mid September, aggression is more marked as the breeding season (or rut) begins. Mature stags are increasingly intolerant of each other, and can be seen chasing through the fields as they attain peak condition.
The herd at the park normally graze on the 200-acre flat meadow area, colloquially known as the Fifteen Acres.
Three species of deer live wild in Ireland today: fallow deer, red deer and the sika deer.