Robert de Niro leads tributes after death of Deer Hunter director Michael Cimino
Oscar-winning director Michael Cimino, whose film The Deer Hunter became one of the great triumphs of Hollywood's 1970s heyday and whose disastrous Heaven's Gate helped bring that era to a close, has died.
Los Angeles County acting coroner's lieutenant B Kim said Cimino (77) died on Saturday. He said had been living in Beverly Hills at the time of his death.
Cimino had his directorial breakthrough with his second film, The Deer Hunter, in 1978, the story of the Vietnam War's effect on a small steel-working town in Pennsylvania. The film won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director for Cimino.
But his emerging career then took a U-turn with 1980's Heaven's Gate, a Western starring Kris Kristofferson that was a critical and financial disaster.
Eric Weissmann, a friend and former lawyer of Cimino's, told The New York Times police found his body at his home after friends were unable to reach him by phone.
The Deer Hunter helped lift the emerging-legend status of Robert De Niro and Meryl Streep. Christopher Walken also won an Oscar for Best Supporting Actor.
"Our work together is something I will always remember. He will be missed," De Niro said in a statement.
Despite controversy over its portrayal of the North Vietnamese and use of the violent game Russian roulette, the film was praised by some critics as the best American movies since The Godfather six years earlier.
Roger Ebert, writing in the Chicago Sun-Times, called it "one of the most emotionally shattering films ever made".
But Heaven's Gate, which also starred Walken, became synonymous with over-budget and out-of-control productions, and a cautionary tale for giving artistic-minded directors too much power in the new Hollywood that had been defined by directors such as Francis Ford Coppola and Martin Scorsese.
Its initial budget of 11.5 million dollars (£8.6m) would balloon to 44 million (£33m) after marketing. While those numbers are meagre by today's standards, at the time they were enough to hasten the demise of United Artists, and of Cimino's career.
Some say it helped bring down the director-driven renaissance that had fuelled much of the great work of the 1970s, giving way to a business-and-blockbuster mentality that would dominate the decades that followed.
Steven Bach, a former executive vice president at United Artists, documented the production in the 1999 book Final Cut: Art Money And Ego In The Making Of Heaven's Gate.
Vincent Canby, the New York Times film critic not known for his harshness, said the film was an "unqualified disaster" that "fails so completely that you might suspect Mr Cimino sold his soul to the devil to obtain the success of The Deer Hunter, and the devil has just come around to collect".
But Cimino always stood by the movie as an artistic accomplishment, or at least a project worth undertaking.
"I never second-guess myself," he told Vanity Fair in 2010. "You can't look back. I don't believe in defeat. Everybody has bumps, but as Count Basie said, 'It's not how you handle the hills, it's how you handle the valleys.'"
Clint Eastwood, a lifelong friend, also defended him in Vanity Fair.
"George Lucas made Howard The Duck and the guy who made Waterworld - those films didn't destroy them," he said.
"Critics were set up to hate Heaven's Gate. The picture didn't work with the public. If it had, it would have been the same as Titanic. Titanic worked, so all is forgiven."
Cimino became an eccentric figure even for Hollywood, living in solitude, constantly changing his appearance, claiming allergies to both alcohol and sunshine.
Born in New York City and raised on Long Island, Cimino graduated from Yale in 1961, and he earned a master's degree from the University of New Haven in 1963, both in painting.
His first film came in 1974 with Thunderbolt And Lightfoot, a robbery picture with Eastwood and Jeff Bridges playing the title characters that led to his landing The Deer Hunter.
Cimino worked only sporadically in the years that followed Heaven's Gate, and with no success. His remaining films were 1985's Year Of The Dragon, 1987's The Sicilian, 1990's Desperate Hours, and 1996's Sunchaser.