Asia's oil refiners rush to deal with US-China trade war, looming Iran sanctions
Asian oil refiners are racing to secure crude supplies in anticipation of an escalating trade war between the United States and China, and as Washington plans tough sanctions against Iran aimed at shutting the country out of oil markets.
As part of a wave of retaliation for Friday's US tariffs, China has threatened a 25pc duty on imports of US crude.
Meanwhile, Washington's new sanctions against Tehran are due to kick in from November.
That double whammy is prompting Asian refiners to move swiftly, with South Korea leading the way.
Under Washington's gaze, Seoul pressure has halted all orders of Iranian oil, according to sources, even as it braces from spillover effects from the US-China tit-for-tat on trade.
"As South Korea's economy heavily relies on trade, it won't be good for South Korea if the global economic slowdown happens because of a trade dispute between US and China," said Lee Dal-seok, senior researcher at the Korea Energy Economic Institute.
In China, state media slammed US President Donald Trump's government as a "gang of hoodlums", with officials vowing retaliation. Standing in the line of fire are US crude supplies to China, which have surged from virtually zero before 2017 to 400,000 barrels per day (bpd) in July.
Although just 5pc of China's overall crude imports, these supplies are worth $1bn a month at current prices - a figure that seems certain to fall.
"The Chinese have to do the tit-for-tat, they have to retaliate," said John Driscoll, director of consultancy JTD Energy, adding that cutting US crude imports was a means "of retaliating (against) the US in a very substantial way".
In an early sign of future times, an executive from China's Dongming Petrochemical Group, an independent refiner from Shandong province, said his refinery had already cancelled US crude orders.
"We expect the Chinese government to impose tariffs on (U.S.) crude," the executive said, declining to be named as he was not authorised to speak to media. "We will switch to either Middle East or West African supplies," he said.
JTD Energy's Driscoll said China may even replace American oil with crude from Iran. "They (Chinese importers) are not going to be intimidated, or swayed by US sanctions," he said.
In Japan, Asia's third-biggest importer of crude, the oil industry has yet to react publicly to Friday's news. The Petroleum Association of Japan previously warned refiners will have to stop loading Iranian crude oil from October if Tokyo doesn't win an exemption on US-Iran sanctions.
Amid the turmoil, some in the region spot opportunity.
"If China retaliates with tariffs on US crude, that could improve South Korea's terms of buying US crude...because the US would need a market to sell to," said Lee Dal-seok at the Korea Energy Economic Institute.
Highlighting that issue, JTD Energy's Driscoll said US oil sellers were "already discounting" their crude.