This is called proprietary estoppel and you should seek legal advice if you think that it concerns you.
Many people learn, sometimes after the death of a loved one, that their will does not meet with their expectations and they feel that they have not been properly provided for.
An Unfair Will
A child that feels that they have been unfairly treated by his/her parent under the terms of the will can bring legal proceedings to challenge the terms.
The test that the judge will apply in deciding whether or not a child should succeed in having the terms of the will changed is whether the testator (that is the person who has made the will and is deceased) has failed in their moral duty to make proper provision for the child in question.
It should be noted that if one parent leaves the entirety of their estate to their remaining spouse, the child will have no grounds to challenge the will until after the death of the remaining spouse.
However, if the remaining spouse is not the mother of the child who wishes to challenge the will, the challenge to the will can be made straight away.
The purpose of this right to challenge a will is to protect children who might reasonably expect support from their parents.
What the court takes into account
For this reason, the court will take into account factors like whether or not the child has received an expensive education or is wealthy in their own right, when deciding whether or not the terms of the will should be changed to make provision for the child in question.
One of the special circumstances which is recognised by the courts is where a child was allowed to believe that they would inherit the family farm and so has moulded their life and training as a result of this belief/promise by the parent.
You should bear in mind that other children will inevitably have to considered and factors like whether or not a sibling has additional needs/suffers from an illness/is infirm will have to be taken into account by the court because the deceased parent will also have a duty to make provision for that child.
If you are considering making an application of this sort to the high court or circuit court (depending on the value of the assets in the will) it is done under S117 of the Succession Act 1965.
You should bear in mind that the time limit for making this type of application is very short and is six months from the date of taking out representation/probate of the deceased's estate (this is the date the District Probate Registry certify that the will is valid and that all legal, financial and tax matters are in order so that the executor or administrator can be allowed to get on with the job of distributing the estate).
If you are considering bringing this type of action, your solicitor should lodge a 'caveat' in the probate office which will bring your concerns to the attention of the solicitor acting for the estate.
The right to challenge a will on the basis that proper provision has not been made for a child is not an absolute right.
However, in the case of a child who has been led to believe that they will inherit the farm and has worked for a long period of time on the farm and moulded their life as a result, you should certainly consider whether your parents' will meets these standards.
Any such challenge would be made after, in this case, your father's death.
The best advice is to try to sort out this issue before he dies in the hope of preventing potentially lengthy and costly legal proceedings and possibly further family difficulties.
Theresa Murphy is a barrister based in Ardrahan, Co Galway