Wake-up call required to avoid a 'dirty dairy' scenario
Spring calving programmes will begin now for grass-based milk production systems. The target is to have 90pc of cows calved in a six week period. However, the reality is that this figure will be closer to 70pc on the majority of dairy farms.
Thankfully, calving patterns are not as tight as a target of 90pc. In reality, labour, facilities and a safe working environment are not in place in at least 90pc of farms.
The dairy industry needs a major wake up call to avoid any association with the scare created by "dirty dairy" in New Zealand.
Expansion does come with the challenge of sustainability. The current mantra of compact calving puts pressure on farm labour, meeting thecurrent welfare requirements of cows, their offspring and simultaneous care of environment in our food production systems.
Optimisation of grass based milk production should in my opinion be based on a 90pc calving rate with a 15pc replacement rate over a 12 week calving period.
This reduces the risks associated with labour fatigue, inadequate housing environment and the attention to detail required for management of dry cow/fresh cow transition and new-born calves.
Current management practices are resulting in inordinately high mortality rates of young stock, cows not to mention depression among dairy farmers. These issues have to be addressed if we are to maintain our 'brand' with access to added value markets based on a sustainable food production system.
We are now at a critical junction in the production cycle. The majority of cows are now in either advanced dry cow transition or early fresh cow transition periods. The experience of cows during this period dictates approximately 70pc of the risk of future herd health problems and survivability of cows into the next lactation.
We still do not give enough attention to cows in the transition period. There is significant misinformation on how to manage dry cows. Two scenarios come to mind.
Restrict and feed poor quality silage to over conditioned dry cows. Cows in excess BCS in the dry cow transition have increased metabolic risk of ketosis and subsequently milk fever. Restricted poor quality silage is not an option for these cows as it will result in an increased risk of womb infections, higher milk SCC and poorer survival rates of cows into the next lactation. Over conditioned cows and those cows carrying twins should get a bolus containing monensin four weeks before their due calving date.
Feed silage at night to increase calvings during daylight
Night time feeding of silage to dry cows will increase bullying at a frequently restricted feed face, which will increase the risk of womb infections post calving.
Cows in the dry cow transition period need access to fresh high quality silage and clean water at all times. The dry cow diet must be supplemented with a dry cow mineral bearing in mind silage and soil analysis, which will indicate the risks associated primarily with copper, selenium, molybdenum and iodine.
Many farmers create a lot of stress for both themselves, their cows and calves by having insufficient close-up calving pens. These pens must be kept clean and disinfected as a routine after each calving. Ensure there is fresh silage balanced with minerals and concentrates and clean water available at all times.
The primary risks of disease transmission around calving are Neospora and Johne's disease.
Afterbirths need to be disposed of properly.
Johne's Disease will increase the risk of poorer survival rates and performance of your livestock. Control measurements are difficult to maintain on an ongoing basis as the calving season progresses.
Colostrum quantity and quality are essential for the new-born calf. Calves require between three and four litres of colostrum within two hours of birth. Optimal future performance of replacement heifers requires six litres of milk daily in the first eight weeks of life. This is best achieved with two feeding times daily.
A housing environment free of draughts is essential for the young calf.
Draughts of 5mph will leave calves feeling up to 10pc colder.
If temperatures drop close to freezing, daily energy requirements increase by 30pc. Therefore, more milk needs to be fed to maintain growth targets.
Automatic calf feeders, which can mimic natural suckling are essential in this scenario.
Thermal jackets for calves are an excellent aid to maintain body temperature in young calves.
In conclusion, sustainable food production from dairy requires a balanced approach from a welfare, health and environment perspective.
You can make a significant difference on your farm in the next six weeks with the optimisation of dry cow/fresh cow transition management and management of the new-born calf.
Dr Dan Ryan is a bovine reproductive physiologist and can be contacted at www.reprodoc.ie
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