South African protests as President Zuma celebrates 75th birthday
Tens of thousands of South Africans have marked the 75th birthday of President Jacob Zuma with a protest against him.
They called for his resignation because of scandals and his dismissal of a widely respected finance minister.
The president, meanwhile, danced at a party where well-wishers said they loved him.
The rally in the capital, Pretoria - which followed nationwide protests on Friday, comes amid sharp criticism of Mr Zuma within the ruling African National Congress party, although the president still commands the support of powerful ANC factions.
President Zuma, who is in his second five-year term after becoming president in 2009, has become a flashpoint for concerns about government corruption and mismanagement in one of Africa's most powerful economies.
"Take a permanent holiday" said one protest sign mockingly wishing a happy birthday to Mr Zuma.
Some demonstrators carried a mock coffin covered with a South African flag.
Crowds gathered at a central square and marched peacefully to the Union Buildings, which house Mr Zuma's offices.
Police estimated the crowd size in Pretoria at 30,000. Protest organisers said the number was higher.
The protest united groups with sharply different ideologies. The Democratic Alliance, the main opposition party, includes many members of the white minority that still controls much of the economy 23 years after the end of apartheid.
The smaller Economic Freedom Fighters party, led by former ruling party member Julius Malema, says it seeks the rapid transfer of land and industry to South Africa's poor black majority.
"All political parties have come together to send one message," Mr Malema said.
"Zuma must leave office, and the soonest he does that, the better, because this country must recover economically."
Later on Wednesday, Mr Zuma attended a birthday party for him in the Soweto area of Johannesburg, sitting in a high-backed armchair on a stage before dancing.
Supporters praised him, saying he would overcome political challenges and serve out his term until 2019.
President Zuma last month fired Finance Minister Pravin Gordhan, who coincidentally turned 68 on Wednesday, in a Cabinet reshuffle.
Some top ruling party leaders openly criticised the decision. Two agencies, Fitch and Standard & Poor's, responded by lowering South Africa's credit rating to below investment grade, raising concerns about a weakening currency and price increases in a country with high unemployment.
In a birthday message, the ruling party commended President Zuma for his record as an anti-apartheid leader and tenure as president.
Mr Zuma spent 10 years in the same Robben Island prison where Nelson Mandela was held, but his anti-apartheid record has been overshadowed by scandals, including the spending of millions of dollars in state funds on his private home.
He paid back some money after the Constitutional Court ruled against him last year.
On Monday, Mr Zuma said many white demonstrators calling for his resignation are racist.
Opponents described the remark as an affront to legitimate protest.
Key allies, including the South African Communist Party and the country's biggest labour group, have urged Zuma to resign.
The divided ANC, however, is seeking to project an image of unity and says it will defeat an opposition bid to oust Mr Zuma in a parliamentary vote of no confidence scheduled for April 18.
A small opposition party has opened a court challenge to try to have the vote conducted by secret ballot, which analysts believe could allow some ANC lawmakers to vote against President Zuma with less fear of reprisal from ruling party loyalists.
They also say the legal challenge could delay the vote.