Lava from Hawaii volcano cascades into sea in vivid display
Published 18/08/2016 | 11:36
Lava from a volcano on Hawaii's Big Island has crept down miles of mountainside and is dripping into the Pacific Ocean - where it is creating new land and a stunning show for visitors.
Thousands of people from around the world have flocked to Volcanoes National Park by land, sea and air to view the lava, which crackles and hisses, and reeks of sulphur and scorched earth, as it oozes across the rugged landscape and eventually off steep seaside cliffs.
When the hot rocks hit the water, they expel plumes of steam and gas - and sometimes explode, sending chunks of searing debris flying through the air.
The 2,000-degree molten rock is from Kilauea, one of the world's most active volcanoes.
Its Puu Oo vent began erupting in the 1980s and periodically pushes enough lava seaward that people can access it.
Reaching the flow requires a boat, a helicopter or strong legs - the climb to the entry point, where the lava meets the sea, is a 10-mile round trip on a gravel road surrounded by miles of treacherous, hard lava rock.
Pablo Aguayo, of Santiago, Chile, took a sunrise boat tour of the flow earlier this month.
"It's pretty amazing," he said. "You start in the middle of the ocean in the darkness, and you end up in this beautiful lava falls."
Mr Aguayo said he could feel the lava's heat, and it smelled "super funny".
"It's like welding something," he said. "We have many volcanoes back home in Chile. We have plenty. But nothing like this."
His tour boat was a 42ft aluminium catamaran operated by Lava Ocean Tours owner Shane Turpin, who said he navigates to within a few yards of the entry point for the best view.
On August 9, a second branch of lava started to spill into the ocean, giving Mr Turpin's passengers a look at two lava flows about 200 yards apart.
"Just to have one drip (of lava) touching the ocean is awesome," Mr Turpin said as people took photos of the dual flows. "But to get a show like you're getting this morning, well, it sets the bar pretty high for a second trip."
Volcanoes National Park has seen an increase of about 1,000 to 1,500 visitors per day since the current lava flow reached the sea, boosting attendance to about 6,000 people daily, officials said.
Park spokeswoman Jessica Ferracane warned the area can be dangerous.
Hikers can get close enough that the soles of their shoes get hot, and the area is flanked by hardened lava rock as sharp as glass.
Many people have suffered lacerations while trying to cross the jagged landscape, Ms Ferracane said.
"Everybody wants to see the lava flow, but not everybody should be hiking out there," she said.
Additionally, when the lava reaches the ocean, it reacts with the saltwater and produces harmful hydrochloric acid, which wafts into the air, said Janet Babb, a US Geological Survey geologist at the Hawaiian Volcano Observatory.
As it streams into the water, the lava creates a new landscape in a matter of moments.
According to the US Geological Survey, the Puu Oo flow alone has created about 500 acres of new land since it began erupting. The flow that began in May has created about eight new acres.
Most of Kilauea's activity has been non-explosive, but a 1924 eruption hurled ash and 10-ton rocks into the sky and left a man dead.
The 1983 Puu Oo vent eruption resulted in lava fountains soaring more than 1,500ft high.
In the decades since, the lava flow has buried 48 square miles of land and destroyed many homes.
In 2008, after a series of small earthquakes rattled the island, Kilauea's summit crater opened and spewed lava and rock over 75 acres of the mountain, damaging the nearby visitor overlook.
It is hard to predict when the volcano will inflate or when the current flow will stop, Ms Babb said.
It could slow down any day or keep cascading into the sea for months.