The trial of Kenya's deputy president has opened at the International Criminal Court in the Netherlands on charges of orchestrating deadly violence in the aftermath of his country's disputed 2007 election.
Ruto and broadcaster Joshua Sang are both accused of murder, deportation and persecution. They insist they are innocent.
The case is a critical test for the ICC to demonstrate it can successfully prosecute an African leader. In November, Kenyan President Uhuru Kenyatta will stand trial on similar charges.
Prosecutors have complained of widespread witness intimidation leading up to the trial and some witnesses have refused to give evidence, throwing the strength of the case into question.