Anniversaries of 2013
Published 31/12/2012 | 15:30
FROM the birth of Vivien Leigh to the last run of the Flying Scotsman, here are the notable births, deaths and events that are commemorated in 2013.
1 Pierre de Coubertin, father of the modern Olympics, born 1863 (died 1937).
4 Isaac Pitman, inventor of a system of shorthand, born 1813 (died 1897). His maxim was: “Time saved is life gained.”
9 Metropolitan underground railway, from Paddington to Farringdon opened, 1863.
9 Richard Nixon born 1913 (died 1994). Elected President of the United States 1969; resigned 1974.
14 Flying Scotsman’s last scheduled run, 1963.
16 James May, motoring journalist, born, 1963.
17 David Lloyd George, born, Manchester 1863 (died 1945)
18 Danny Kaye, comedian, born 1913 (died 1987). He astonished audiences with his verbal dexterity.
18 Hugh Gaitskell died 1963 (born 1906). Served under Attlee. Chancellor of the Exchequer, 1950–51, imposing charges on NHS teeth and spectacles. In 1952 spoke against Communist infiltration of the Labour party. Became Labour leader, 1955, and in the mid 1950s attacked Eden over Suez and had an intense affair with Ann Fleming. Failed to abolish Clause 4 of the Labour constitution, 1960. The party conference was also at odds with the parliamentary party over unilateral nuclear disarmament. At the 1962 party conference, Gaitskell opposed membership of the European Economic Community, calling it “the end of Britain as an independent European state. I make no apology for repeating it. It means the end of 1,000 years of history.” He died less than four months later, of lupus erythematosus.
27 Jane Austen received her first copy of Pride and Prejudice from the publisher’s, 1813: “My own darling Child from London.” The following day it was advertised in the Morning Chronicle, priced 18 shillings.
29 Thomas Bodley, founder of the Bodleian Library, Oxford, died 1613 (born 1545).
29 Robert Frost, poet, died 1963 (born, San Francisco, 1874).
29 President Charles de Gaulle said “Non” to Britain’s membership of the European Economic Union, 1963.
30 Percy Thrower, gardener, born 1913 (died 1988). Radio broadcaster, writer and presenter of Gardeners’ World on television, 1964-76.
30 Francis Poulenc, composer, died 1963 (born 1899).
4 Rosa Parks born 1913 (died 2005). Refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man, 1955.
9 Anthony Hope, novelist, born Anthony Hope Hawkins 1863 (died 1933). The Prisoner of Zenda (1894) set in his invented Ruritania; Rupert of Hentzau (1898).
10 General Tom Thumb (35 inches tall ) and Lavinia Warren (32 inches) married, New York, 1863, with P T Barnum charging for admission to the wedding reception.
10 Robert Falcon Scott found dead in a tent, with Wilson and Bowers, by relief party in the Antarctic, 1913.
11 The Beatles recorded their first LP, Please Please Me, 1963.
11 Sylvia Plath, poet, killed herself, 1963 (born, Massachusetts, 1932). Ariel, a volume of poems edited by her husband Ted Hughes, published 1965.
14 Harold Wilson became leader of the Labour party, 1964.
17 Stanley Gibbons, postage stamp dealer, died 1913 (born 1840). Founded his business on two sacks of Cape of Good Hope triangular stamps bought for £5 from two sailors in 1863.
21 John Lewis, founder of the John Lewis Partnership (1929), died 1963 (born 1885).
26 George Barker, poet, born 1913 (died 1991). First volume commissioned by T S Eliot at Faber. Affair with Elizabeth Smart inspired her By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept (1945). Influenced the blind poet John Heath-Stubbs and the deaf poet David Wright. In Italy put up the painters Robert Colquhoun and Robert MacBryde. In Soho mixed with John Minton, the painter, John Deakin, the photographer, Oliver Bernard, the poet, and Paul Potts, the failed poet. With his first wife Jessica he had three children; by Elizabeth Smart he had four; by Dede Farrelly three; his eventual wife Elspeth bore him five more.
1 St Swithberht died 713. One of the 12 companions of Willibrord in his mission to evangelise the Frisians. Built a monastery on an island, Kaiserswerth, in the Rhine.
7 The Alum Chine, a Welsh freighter with 343 tons of dynamite, exploded in Baltimore Harbour, 1913.
9 William Cobbett born 1763 (died 1835). Learnt his letters at home. Enlisted in a foot regiment and read hungrily. On discharge in 1791, wrote a pamphlet against bad treatment of soldiers. Fled with his wife to France, then America. There he wrote under the name Peter Porcupine, against the French Revolution and Tom Paine, as “an unconscionable dog”. Back in England began the Political Register in 1802, published weekly until his death. Came to detest paper money and national debt. Imprisoned Newgate, 1810–12, for criticising the flogging of several militiamen. From 1815 campaigned for impoverished country-dwellers. Fled to America 1817-19. Published Grammar of the English Language (1818) with examples of poor usage from the Duke of Wellington and Lord Castlereagh. Brought back from America the bones of Thomas Paine. Explored England 1821-26 for Rural Rides (1830). History of the Protestant Reformation (1824–7) argued that the poor had been dispossessed by the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Acquitted, 1831, of inciting rural incendiarism. Wrote against diet of potatoes and tea. Elected to reformed Parliament, for Oldham, 1832.
10 Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, married Princess Alexandra, 1863
13 Tessie “Two Ton Tessie” O’Shea, singer in variety shows, born 1913 (died 1995). Played herself in The Blue Lamp (1949).
15 John Snow, epidemiologist, born 1813 (died 1858). Discovered that cholera was a water-borne infection. In 1854 an outbreak of cholera round Broad Street now Broadwick Street), Soho, London, killed 500 in 10 days before Snow showed the correlation with the pump in the street, the handle of which he removed. A pioneer of anaesthesia, he used ether and then chloroform, which, against vulgar prejudice, Queen Victoria welcomed during the birth of Prince Leopold in 1853. “The effect was soothing, quieting & delightful beyond measure,” she wrote.
16 William Beveridge, author of Social Insurance and Allied Services (1942), died 1963 (born 1879). His report sold 70,000 copies in a week. A second report, Full Employment in a Free Society (1944), not officially endorsement, countenanced the possibility of public ownership of the means of production, but his book Voluntary Action (1948) strongly defended the role of the voluntary sector in providing social welfare.
19 David Livingstone, explorer and missionary, born 1813 (died 1873). Aged 10 worked in a mill tying up broken threads on spinning jennies, 12 hours a day. Aged 18 became a Congregationalist, and trained with the London Missionary Society. Lived in South Africa 1841-52, where in 1845 he married a missionary’s daughter, Mary Moffat. Pressed north, finding the Zambezi and trading in legitimate goods to undermine the slave trade. From Luanda in 1854 crossed Africa, west to east, finding what he named the Victoria Falls on the way. His Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (1857) sold 30,000 in five years. Zambezi expedition of 1858-64 proved arduous, and fatal to some. From 1866 he set off to find the watershed of central Africa from which the Nile drained. In November 1871, the journalist H M Livingstone found him and was able to use his prepared greeting: “Dr Livingstone, I presume?” Livingstone died near lake Tanganyika, where his heart was buried, his body being taken to Westminster Abbey.
20 Henry IV, King of England, died 1413 , in the Jerusalem Chamber, Westminster Abbey (born 1367).
23 Beeching report, The Reshaping of British Railways, published, 1963. Its implementation saw track reduced from 18,214 miles in 1961 to 12,098 in 1969, and the number of railway stations from 7,025 in 1961 to 3,002.
25 Garnet Wolseley (1st Viscount Wolseley), Army officer, died 1913 (born 1833). Quickly wrapped up the Second Ashante War of 1873-74 in the Gold Coast. Pursued Army reforms, referring to the Duke of Cambridge, the Commander-in-Chief and grandson of George III, as one of “those great boulders of prejudice and superstition who now impede the way”. Model for the Modern Major-General of Gilbert and Sullivan’s Pirates of Penzance. Phrase “all Sir Garnet” became a term of approbation. Continued his career of colonial warfare and was made Commander-in-Chief of the Forces, 1895.
26 Augustus Egg, painter, died 1863 (born 1816). Cromwell Discovering his Chaplain, Jeremiah White, Making Love to his Daughter Frances (1842); Queen Elizabeth Discovers she is No Longer Young (1848); Pepys’s Introduction to Nell Gwynne (1851); The Travelling Companions (depicting two sisters in a railway carriage near Menton, 1862).
27 Gibraltar ceded to Britain by Spain under Treaty of Utrecht, 1713.
27 Henry Royce born 1863 (died 1933). Partnership with Charles Rolls, 1904.
4 Edward Dowden, poet, died 1913 (born 1843).
8 Margery Beddingfield, murderer, judicially burnt 1763 (born 1742). Conspired with her husbands’s servant to kill him, and so charged with petty treason. He was hanged at Rushmere St Andrew, near Ipswich, and she, out of kindness, strangled before her body was burnt.
13 Garry Kasparov, chess champion, born, Baku, 1963.
19 Michael Wharton, satirical journalist for The Daily Telegraph, born, Shipley, West Yorkshire, 1913 (died 2006). At Oxford began “an unremitting war on reality”. Started writing the “Way of the World” column, signed Peter Simple, in 1957. Continued for 49 years. Its fantasy figures included Dr Spacely-Trellis, the go-ahead bishop of Bevindon, and Alderman Foodbotham, the 25 stone, crag-visaged, iron-watch-chained perpetual chairman of the Bradford city tramways and fine arts committee. In his memoir The Missing Will (1984), sketched astonishing comic scenes of drunken Fleet Street life.
21 Lord Beeching, who took an axe to the railway system, born Richard Beeching 1913 (died 1985). “I suppose I’ll always be looked upon as the axe man,” he said, “but it was surgery.”
21 Norman Parkinson, photographer, born 1913 (died 1990).
24 Princess Alexandra married the Hon Angus Ogilvy at Westminster Abbey, 1963.
25 Victor Weisz, cartoonist “Vicky”, born 1913 (died 1966). Came to England from Berlin, 1938. In 1939 employed by Gerald Barry of the News Chronicle, who set him the task of reading Shakespeare, Alice in Wonderland, Dickens, Edward Lear, A A Milne, back numbers of Punch and Wisden. Thus equipped, he drew topical cartoons for the paper for 14 years, resigning when a cartoon on Kenya was rejected. From 1958 drew for Beaverbrook’s Evening Standard.
29 William Randolph Hearst, press magnate, born, San Francisco, 1863 (died 1951).
2 Beatles’ first No 1 single, From Me To You, 1963.
3 George Psalmanazar, impostor, died 1763 (born 1679). Posing as a native of Formosa, published An Historical and Geographical Description of Formosa (1704), in which he claimed that its state religion, founded by someone called Psalmanaazaar, required the annual sacrifice of 18,000 boys under the age of nine. In residence at Christ Church, Oxford, for three months. A second edition of his book described Formosan men eating discarded wives. As his imposture fell away, Psalmanazar became an industrious hack writer. Converted by William Law’s Serious Call (1729). Regarded in his old age with respect by Samuel Johnson. In his posthumous Memoirs (1764), which reveals that he was born in France, he casually mentions his long-term use of opium.
5 Søren Kierkegaard, religious thinker, born, Copenhagen, 1813 (died 1855).
6 Stewart Granger born 1913 (died 1993). Films included Fanny by Gaslight (1944), Waterloo Road (1945), King Solomon’s Mines (1950), The Prisoner of Zenda (1952), Bhowani Junction (1956). Turned down the leads in Quo Vadis? , From Here to Eternity and Ben Hur.
7 Max Miller, variety comedian, died 1963 (born 1894). Wore loud suits of plus fours. Renowned for innuendo, being fined by the Finsbury Park Empire for mentioning “the girl of 18 who swallowed a pin but didn’t feel the prick until she was 21”.
8 Sid James born, Johannesburg, 1913 (died 1976). Hancock’s Half Hour on radio (1954–9) and television (1956-60), until dripped by Tony Hancock. Carry on Constable (1960) and 18 other Carry On films.
10 Thomas “Stonewall” Jackson, Confederate general, died of his wounds during the American Civil War, 1863 (born 1824). At the First Battle of Bull Run in 1861, General Barnard Elliott Bee had rallied his men by exclaiming: “There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer.”
15 Frank Hornby, toymaker, born 1863 (died 1936). First patent for Meccano, 1901. Hornby model trains from 1920.
16 James Boswell, aged 24, first met Samuel Johnson, aged 55, in the bookshop of Johnson’s friend, Tom Davies, at 8 Russell Street, 1763.
17 C R Ashbee born 1863 (died 1942). Founded Guild of Handicraft, 1888, associated with Toynbee Hall, the east End settlement. Moved with 150 men and women to Chipping Campden, Gloucestershire, 1902. Founded The Survey of London, 1894, which is still in progress. In 1918 began to restore old city of Jerusalem.
22 Richard Wagner born 1813 (died 1883).
25 Richard Dimbleby, broadcaster, born 1913 (died 1965). BBC war correspondent; first correspondent to enter Belsen. Commentated for television at the Coronation, 1953. Anchorman of Panorama from its foundation in 1955. When commentated at funeral of Churchill, 1965, had been suffering from cancer for five years.
25 Donald Maclean, spy, born 1913 (died 1983). Recruited by the NKVD in 1934, in Cambridge. British diplomat, Paris 1938-40; Washington 1944; Cairo 1948; Washington 1950 until his defection, tipped off about the closing net by Kim Philby, to Moscow with Guy Burgess in 1951.
26 Peter Cushing, actor, born 1913 (1994). Frankenstein in five Hammer films. Sherlock Holmes on BBC teelevision (1958–9).
27 The Freewheelin’ Bob Dylan, his second LP, released, 1963.
28 John Lubbock (1st Baron Avebury), banker and inventor of the bank holiday (1871), died 1913 (born 1834).
29 The Rite of Spring, with music by Igor Stravinsky, performed by Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes in Paris, 1913, provoking a “riot”, although the performance was not cut short.
31 Francis Younghusband born 1863 (died 1942). Appointed in 1903 to lead British mission to Tibet, he decided to push on to Lhasa at the head of an armed force, responsible for massacring 700 Tibetans at Chumi Shengo. Entering Lhasa, September 1904, he mistook for a welcome the crowd clapping their hands to ward off evil spirits. Thereafter developed interests in mountaineering, sex and mysticism.
1 W F (Bill) Deedes, journalist, born 1913 (died 2007). Reporter, Morning Post, 1931. Covered Abyssinian war, with Evelyn Waugh, 1936. MC in Second World War; much affected by the death of men under his command. Deputy editor, “Peterborough” column, Daily Telegraph; MP for Ashford. Housing Minister, 1954-57; Minister without portfolio, 1962-64. Editor, Daily Telegraph, 1974-86. Golfing partner of Denis Thatcher and fictionalised recipient of “Dear Bill” letters in Private Eye. Continued as Telegraph columnist until his death. Travelled with Diana, Princess of Wales, in campaign against landmines.
2 Barbara Pym, novelist of High Church Anglicanism, unrequited love and spinsterhood, born 1913 (died 1980). Suffered much from publishers. Some Tame Gazelle (1936) unpublished until 1950. Five novels followed until 1963 when Jonathan Cape, under Tom Maschler, rejected An Unsuitable Attachment. Her work was valued by a few, such as Philip Larkin, but no more was published until Quartet in Autumn (1977).
2 Alfred Austin, died 1913 (born 1835). Poet Laureate 1896. Often mocked for lines he did not write. The couplet on the Prince of Wales’s illness, “Flash’d from his bed, the electric tidings came, / He is not better; he is much the same,” was passed of as his by E F Benson. Nor did his first poem as laureate, “Jameson’s Raid”, contain the couplet “They went across the veldt, /As hard as they could pelt.”
3 Pope John XIII died, 1963 (born 1881; elected 1958). Initiated the Second Vatican Council.
4 Emily Davison, a Suffragette, stepped in front of the King’s horse, Anmer, at the Derby, 1913, bringing it down, unseating the jockey and sustaining injuries from which she died four days later. The jockey, Herbert Jones, committed suicide in 1951.
6 Patrick Campbell (3rd Baron Glenavy), remembered for deploying his stammer to comic effect on Call My Bluff, born 1913 (died 1980).
15 Trevor Huddleston, anti-apartheid campaigner, born 1913 (died 1998). A member of the Community of the Resurrection from 1939. Worked in Johanesburg, 1943-56. Bishop of Stepney, 1968-78. Archbishop of the Province of the Indian Ocean, 1978-83.
16 Valentina Tereshkova the first woman in space, 1963.
17 Alan Brooke (1st Viscount Alanbrooke) died 1963 (born 1883). From December 1941 became chief of the Imperial General Staff and chairman of the chiefs of staff committee. Responsible for strategy by which North Africa was secured and Italy invaded before the Anglo-American armies invaded France in June 1944.
20 Wolfe Tone, Protestant Irish nationalist, born, Dublin, 1763 (died 1798). Led one of the French expeditions in support of Irish revolution, was captured on board ship, and cut his throat in prison on the eve of being hanged.
21 Giovanni Battista Montini elected Pope as Paul VI, 1963.
26 George Morland, painter, born 1763 (died 1804). Productive and admired but antipathetic to patronage and polite society. Given to low-life drinking. Died under arrest for debt.
26 President John F. Kennedy gave his “Ich bin ein Berliner” speech in West Berlin, 1963.
28 George Lloyd, undervalued English composer, born 1913 (died 1998).
29 Sir Gerald Nabarro born 1913 (died 1973). Became the Conservatives’ most famous backbencher, with his handlebar moustache, rich voice and populist views.
2 Lord Beloff, born Max Beloff 1913 (died 1999). In 1974 became first principal of the privately funded University College of Buckingham.
3 Tracey Emin, artist, born, 1963.
4 Edward Lawson (4th Baron Burnham) died 1963 (born 1890). Worked as second in command to his uncle, Harry Levy-Lawson, proprietor of The Daily Telegraph, under whom the circulation fell from 180,000 in 1920 to 84,000 at the end of 1927, when the paper was sold to the Berry brothers. Lawson continued, as general manager, and the circulation grew spectacularly, especially after the price was cut for 2d to 1d in 1930. The Morning Post was swallowed in 1937. Managing director, 1945-61, and in 1947, circulation rose above a million. Wrote a centenary history of the paper, Peterborough Court (1955), in which he related that Oscar Wilde’s brother Willie worked as a sub-editor on the paper “stripped to the waist, a practice considered very much more peculiar then than it would be today”.
8 Susan Chilcott, opera singer, born 1963 (died 2003).
9 Emily Tennyson born 1813 (died 1896). Managed her husband from 1850, the poet Alfred, and wrote much of their son Hallam’s two-volume Memoir of him after his death in 1892.
13 Israel Gollancz born 1863 (died 1930). Edited the Middle English poem Pearl (1891) and produced facsimile edition of Pearl, Cleanness, Patience and Sir Gawain (1923).
14 Gerald Ford, President of the United States 1974-1977, born 1913 (died 2006).
15 Hammond Innes, bestselling adventure novelist, born 1913 (died 1998). The Trojan Horse (1941), The 'Mary Deare’ (1956).
23 Michael Foot born 1913 (died 2010). Leader of the Labour party, 1980-83. The 1983 Labour manifesto, “the longest suicide note in history”, promising unilateral nuclear disarmament, higher taxes and nationalisation of the banks, helped the party to disastrous showing in the election.
23 Coral Browne, actress, born 1913 (died 1991). Playing Gertrude opposite Michael Redgrave in Hamlet, touring in Moscow in 1956, she met the spy Guy Burgess. Played her younger self in Alan Bennett’s An Englishman Abroad (1983). Married to Vincent Price.
25 Cyril Fletcher, comedian, born 1913 (died 2005). Known for his “odd Odes”. Catchphrase: “Thanking yew.”
29 Jo Grimond, leader of the Liberal party 1956-67 and in 1976, born 1913 (died 1993).
30 Henry Ford, motor manufacturer who developed assembly-line process, born 1863 (died 1947).
3 Ernest Asser, shirtmaker, born 1863 (died 1931) Turnbull and Asser established 1895.
3 Stephen Ward, osteopath and figure in the Profumo scandal, died 1963 (born 1912). Introduced in 1961 by his patient Colin Coote, the editor of The Daily Telegraph, to Yevgeny Ivanov, the Russian naval attaché. In July that year, John Profumo, the Minister for War, was a guest of Ward’s at a weekend party that included Ivanov and Christine Keeler. In March 1963, Profumo made a formal denial in the House of Commons of “impropriety” with Miss Keeler. Profumo resigned on June 4, and on June 8 Ward was charged with living on immoral earnings. Found guilty but killed himself with sleeping tablets.
5 Nuclear test ban treaty signed by Britain, the United States and the Soviet Union, 1963.
8 Great Train Robbery of £2,631,684 from mail train stopped at Sears Crossing, between Leighton Buzzard, Bedfordshire, and Cheddington, Buckinghamshire, 1963.
9 Whitney Houston, singer born, 1963 (died 2012).
11 Henry Pye, Poet Laureate from 1790, died 1813 (born 1745). “The poetical Pye,” wrote Walter Scott, “eminently respectable in everything but his poetry.” A more recent critic judged that his “original verse is never distinctive enough to be really bad”. He had a phobia of plains, of water or of land. “Crossing Blackfriars Bridge by moonlight,” wrote Henry Crabb Robinson, “Pye caught a glimpse of the water with the reflection of the moon upon it, and sank down into the carriage pretending to look for his glove in order to conceal the trouble the sight gave him.”
13 Eugène Delacroix, painter, died 1863 (born 1798). Liberty Leading the People (1830).
13 Makarios III, Archbishop of Cyprus from 1950 and leader of enosis movement to unite Cyprus with Greece, born 1913 (died 1977). President of Cypus 1960-74.
16 Menachem Begin born 1913 (died 1992). As Prime Minister of Israel signed peace treaty with Egypt in 1979, for which he and Anwar Sadat were awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace.
20 Thomas Torrance born 1913 (died 2007). Church of Scotland theologian centred on Scripture and the Fathers of the Church.
21 Arnold Goodman, solicitor who fixed things in high places, born 1913 (died 1995). Trusted by Edward Heath and by Harold Wilson, who asked him to get him the mastership of University College, Oxford. Unfortunately Goodman already had his own invitation to the post in his pocket.
22 William Morris (1st Viscount Nuffield), motor manufacturer, died 1963 (born 1877).
27 Donald MacKinnon, theologian, born 1913 (died 1994).
28 Martin Luther King delivered “I Have A Dream” speech, Washington, 1963.
28 Hugh Cudlipp, journalist, born 1913 (died 1998). In 1968, as chairman of IPC, set up a meeting at which Cecil King invited Earl Mountbatten to take power after the military overthrow of Harold Wilson, the Prime Minister.
30 Milton Shulman, theatre critic, born, Toronto, 1913 (died 2004). In 38 years from 1953, reviewed more than 5,000 productions for the Evening Standard, but detected not a single great new play. Waiting for Godot was ideal for “those who prefer to have their clichés masquerading as epigrams”. Married Drusilla Beyfus, 1956.
30 Guy Burgess, spy, died, Moscow, 1963 (born 1911). Joined the Communist party at Cambridge, where he was a member of the Apostles and known for his drinking and homosexuality. Introduced to Kim Philby 1933, and in 1934 learnt to be a Soviet secret agent. He recommended Anthony Blunt and Donald Maclean as recruits. Worked for the BBC’s talks department, 1936. Joined MI6, 1938, and secured Philby’s recruitment. In 1946 became private secretary to the minister of state at the Foreign Office. In 1950 posted to the Washington embassy. In the 1951 was sent home in disgrace for dissolute behaviour, and would have been dismissed had he not disappeared to Moscow with Maclean. A series in The People in 1957 described his life of 'drunkenness, in addition to drugs, homosexuality and loose-living’; its author turned out to be Goronwy Rees, a fellow of All Souls and a member of the Wolfenden committee on homosexual offences. Burgess was portrayed by Alan Bennett in An Englishman Abroad (1983).
31 Georges Braque, painter and sculptor, died 1963 (born 1882).
31 Bernard Lovell, astronomer, born 1913 (died 2012). Built Jodrell Bank observatory.
2 Bill Shankly, football manager, born 1913 (died 1981). Signed for Carlisle in 1932 at £4 10s a week. Managed Liverpool 1959-74. “Some people think football is a matter of life and death,” he said one. “I can assure them it’s much more serious than that.”
3 Louis MacNeice, poet, died 1963 (born 1907).
7 John Baring, banker, born 1863 (died 1929). In 1890, Barings was rescued from collapse by a Bank of England loan, but remained exposed to a £10 million commitment to the Buenos Aires Water Supply and Drainage Company. Baring set about establishing a new company, Baring Brothers.
7 Anthony Quayle, actor, born 1913 (died 1989). Films included The Battle of the River Plate (1956), The Guns of Navarone (1961) and Lawrence of Arabia (1962).
9 James IV, King of Scots (born 1473) killed at Flodden, 1513, along with the archbishop of St Andrews, the bishop of the Isles, nine earls, and fourteen lords.
10 Angus MacKay, foremost collector of highland bagpipe music, born 1813 (died 1859). Published Collection of Ancient Piobaireachd or Highland Pipe Music (1838) and left a manuscript with 183 tunes. He became violently insane and died attempting to escape from the Crichton Royal Hospital, near Dumfries, drowning in the river Nith, from which his body was never recovered.
12 Jesse Owens born 1913 (died 1980). Black American athlete who won four gold medals in the 1936 Olympics in Berlin. “Hitler didn’t snub me,” he said later. “It was FDR who snubbed me. The President didn’t even send me a telegram.”
15 François de La Rochefoucauld, epigrammatist, born 1613 (died 1680): “In the misfortunes of our best friends we always find something not altogether displeasing to us.”
17 John Edwin Mayall, photographer, born Jabez Meal, in Oldham, Lancashire, 1813 (died 1901). Sold popular cartes-de-visite of Queen Victoria, who called him “The oddest man I ever saw but an excellent photographer. He is an American and a tremendous enthusiast in his work.” Ran 18 studios.
17 C R Cockerell, architect, died 1863 (born 1788). Ashmolean Museum (1841-45). Interior of St George’s Hall, Liverpool (1851–56).
19 David Low, cartoonist, died 1963 (born Dunedin, New Zealand, 1891). Recruited by Beaverbrook for the Evening Standard, 1927. Invented reactionary character Colonel Blimp, 1934. After the fall of Dunkirk drew a cartoon captioned “Very Well, Alone!” Resigned 1949, after space cut. Worked for Manchester Guardian from 1952. In 1932 had published Low’s Russian Sketchbook with myopic text by Kingsley Martin.
20 Jacob Grimm, philologist, died 1863 (born 1785). Formulated Grimm’s Law. With his brother, Wilhelm, collected folk tales.
25 Vasco Núñez de Balboa (born about 1475, died 1519), the first European to cast eyes on the Pacific, 1513.
25 Denning Report on Profumo scandal published, 1963, selling 105,000 copies, 4,000 in the first hour, and being published in full in The Daily Telegraph.
26 John Byrom, poet and creator of a system of shorthand, died 1763 (born 1692). Wrote hymn “Christians, awake, salute the happy morn” for Christmas 1749.
26 Frederick William Faber died 1863 (born 1814). Rector of Elton, Huntingdonshire. Allowed villagers to play cricket in his garden and introduced sacramental Confession. In 1845, a month after Newman, received into Catholic Church (with 10 servants and friends). Founded in Birmingham a new order, the Brothers of the Will of God (which the missionary Dominic Barberi nicknamed the Brothers of the Will of Faber). Joined Newman’s Birmingham Oratory, 1847, and set off to found London Oratory, 1849. Books like All for Jesus (1853) sold in tens of thousands. Hymns include Jesus, gentlest Saviour and Faith of our Fathers.
29 New River opened, 1613, bringing drinking water in a winding canal 10 feet wide and four feet deep to London, 38 miles from the springs of Amwell and Chadwell near Hertford.
29 Trevor Howard born 1913 (died 1988). Played the doctor in Brief Encounter (1945). Other films included The Third Man (1949), The Heart of the Matter (1953), Mutiny on the Bounty (1962), Ryan’s Daughter (1971), Sir Henry at Rawlinson End (1980).
29 Second Vatican Council began its second session, 1963.
3 Arthur Christiansen, died 1963 (born 1904). Made editor of the Daily Express by Beaverbrook, aged 29, and continued for 23 years, until a heart attack in 1956. He saw sales rise from 1.7 to 4 million.
3 Abraham Lincoln proclaimed annual Thanksgiving day for the United States, 1863.
5 Denis Diderot born 1713 (died 1784). Spent 20 years working on the Encyclopédie.
5 Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee Indians, died 1813 (born about 1768). An ally of the British against the Americans.
6 Fanny Trollope, writer, died 1863 (born 1779). Wrote six travel books and 35 novels over 25 years, to earn money for her family as she nursed the sick, four children dying of consumption. Domestic Manners of the Americans (1832) won considerable success. Her son Anthony blames her later for exaggeration.
10 Giuseppe Verdi, composer, born 1813 (died 1901).
10 Panama Canal completed, 1913.
11 Edith Piaf, singer, died 1963 (born 1915).
11 Jean Cocteau, writer, painter and film-maker, died 1963 (born 1889).
16 Austen Chamberlain, born, the son of Joseph Chamberlain, 1863 (died 1937). Leader of Conservative Party, 1920, but his identification with the coalition with Lloyd George’s Liberals lost him the leadership again to Bonar Law in 1922. Foreign Secretary 1924. His success in bringing France and Germany to agree to the Locarno Treaties in 1925 was seen as a foundation for lasting peace. Opposed appeasement in the 1930s.
16 Nelly Benson, born 1863 (died 1890), eldest daughter of E W White, Archbishop of Cantrebury. Helped establish the Women’s University Settlement in Southwark, 1886, and advocated helping poor women help themselves.
18 Harold Macmillan resigned as Prime Minister, 1963, after prostate surgery, a decision he later regretted.
19 Alec Douglas-Home became Prime Minister (renouncing his peerages), 1963, although Rab Butler had been the choice expected by many.
22 Robert Capa, war photographer, born, Budapest, 1913 (died 1954), Cofounded Magnum agency, 1947.
26 Frederick William Rolfe, “Baron Corvo”, writer, died 1913 (born, 1860). Expelled from seminaries, Oscott 1888 and Scots College, Rome, 1890. Hadrian the Seventh, a fantasy of resentment, 1904. Attracted posthumous interest through A J A Symons’ The Quest for Corvo (1934).
26 Hugh Scanlon, trade unionist, born 1913 (died 2004). Communist Party member 1936-54 and a lifelong Marxist. Came to control the Amalgamated Engineering Union when it had a million members. Under Harold Wilson’s administration provided a “solemn and binding” promise to restrain unofficial strikes.
1. Arthur Morrison, writer, born 1863 (died 1945). A Child of the Jago (1896) depicted the violent criminal life around Old Nichol Street, Shoreditch. The Hole in the Wall (1902) began: “My grandfather was a publican —and a sinner, as you will see.”
2 St Erc mac Dega, patron saint of Slane, died 513.
2 Burt Lancaster, film actor, born 1913 (died 1994). From Here to Eternity (1953), Gunfight at the OK Corral (1957), Sweet Smell of Success (1957), Oscar for Elmer Gantry (1960).
4 Lena Zavaroni born 1963 (died 1999). The daughter of fish and chip shop owners on the Isle of Bute, she became the youngest performer on Top of the Pops with Ma, he’s making eyes at me (1974). At 13 she developed anorexia.
5 Mad King Otto of Bavaria deposed, 1913. His madness was manifested by refusing to have his beard cut, by using bundles of matches to light his cigarettes and by insisting on all doors being left open.
5 Vivien Leigh born, Darjeeling, 1913 (died 1967). Making Fire over England (1937) she fell in love with Laurence Olivier, whom she married in 1940; they were divorced in 1960. Played Ophelia to his Hamlet in Old Vic production at Elsinore, Denmark, 1937. Oscars for Gone with the Wind (1939) and A Streetcar Named Desire (1951).
7 Alfred Russel Wallace, evolutionist, died 1913 (born 1823). On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties presented to the Linnaean Society, 1858.
7 Albert Camus, Absurdist writer, born 1913 (died 1960). Goalkeeper for Racing Universitaire d’Alger junior team, 1928–30. Novels: La Peste (1947) La Chute (1956).
7 Marjorie Anderson born 1913 (died 1999). Presented Woman’s Hour, 1952-1973.
8 Herbert Hensley Henson, awkward churchman, born 1863 (died 1947). Ran away from school after being accused of lying. Began as a High Church slum parson and drifted into latitudinarianism. In 1912 denounced from the pulpit of Westminster Abbey the crimes of the Putumayo Rubber Company in Peru, exposed by Roger Casement. But he hated Christian Socialism, and after appointment as Bishop of Durham in 1920, accused striking miners of shirking. When the House of Commons rejected the revised Prayer Book in 1928, he began to campaign for disestablishment of the Church of England. When Archbishop Cosmo Gordon Lang complained that his portrait by Sir William Orpen made him look “proud, prelatical, and pompous”, Henson replied: “And may I ask Your Grace to which of these epithets Your Grace takes exception?” Would interrupt services to take to task members of the congregation who coughed. Refused to have a telephone in Auckland Castle because he could not work it. Published Retrospect of an Unimportant Life (1942–50), in three volumes.
9 Hedy Lamarr, born, Vienna, 1913 (died 2000). Tortilla Flat (1942), Samson and Delilah (1949)
11 Ivy Benson, bandleader, born 1913 (died 1993). Signature tune: Lady be Good.
11 Iain Macleod born 1913 (died 1970). Served under Eden and Macmillan, but (with Enoch Powell) refused to serve under Home. Celebrated public speaker. Editor, The Spectator, December 1963 to December 1965, publishing renowned exposure of Etonian “magic circle” in the Conservative party, January 17 1964, an election year. Died of a heart attack one month after appointment as Chancellor of the Exchequer by Edward Heath.
13 Margaret Murray, Egyptologist and folklorist, died 1963 (born 1863), Invented the notion that medieval European witchcraft was a survival of a pre-Christian nature cult. On occasion, she cast spells in a saucepan to reverse academic appointments of which she disapproved.
15 Surtsey formed as lava breaks surface of the sea off Iceland, 1963.
19 Abraham Lincoln delivered the Gettysburg Address, 1863.
20 Thomas Tompion, clockmaker, died 1713 (born 1639).
21 Sir Arthur Quiller-Couch, “Q”, writer, born 1863 (died 1944). Wrote adventure novels in the manner of Stevenson. Edited The Oxford Book of English Verse, 1250–1900 (1900), selling a million in his lifetime.
22 John F. Kennedy, President of the United States, shot dead, Dallas, Texas, 1963 (born 1917). He had been elected in 1961, as the Democrat candidate, at 43 the second youngest president after Theodore Roosevelt, and the first Catholic.
22 Aldous Huxley died 1963 (born 1894). Three satirical house-party novels made his name: Crome Yellow (1921), Antic Hay (1923) and Those Barren Leaves (1925). Brave New World (1932) predicted a dystopia with test-tube babies. After sterile depression, he took up eastern religions and worked as a Hollywood screenwriter. Wrote about the effects of mescaline in The Doors of Perception (1953).
22 C S (Jack) Lewis, died 1963 (born 1898). Best known for his seven Narnia books for children and then for his Christian apologetic works such as The Screwtape Letters, but by profession a scholar of medieval and Renaissance literature, in which field his Discarded Image, on pre-Copernican cosmology, is probably his most powerful work.
23 Charles Speckman, confidence trickster, hanged 1763 (born about 1734). Posed as a gentleman or servant to obtain goods on approval, which he sold. Transported for 14 years for the theft of a watch, 1750. Returned 1761 and lived by fraud and highway robbery. Arrested for stealing 12 yards of lace. Condemned to death, he quarrelled with the Rev Stephen Roe, the ordinary of Newgate, over the price to be paid for his confessional memoirs. Completed The Life, Travels, Exploits, Frauds and Robberies of Charles Speckman on the eve of his execution and was visited by the occasionally deranged Alexander Cruden, the author of the biblical concordance. On his way to Tyburn, the repentant Speckman declared: “This is the finest Morn, that ever I have seen.”
23 Walter Howard Frere, liturgical scholar, born 1863 (died 1938). One of the six original members of the Community of the Resurrection, Mirfield, 1892. Bishop of Truro, 1923.
23 Doctor Who first broadcast, 1963, with William Hartnell as the Doctor.
24 Laurence Sterne, author of Tristram Shandy, born, Clonmel, 1713 (died 1768). Vicar of Sutton-on-the-Forest, Yorkshire, when in 1759 he published the first volume of the unending novel, the ninth volume appearing in 1767. Samuel Johnson’s judgment in 1776 was: “Nothing odd will do long. Tristram Shandy did not last.”
24 Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of Kennedy, shot dead by Jack Ruby in Dallas, Texas, 1963.
5 Robert MacBryde, painter, born 1913 (died 1966). Inseparable from Robert Colquhoun from their days at Glasgow School of Art. Saw success in the 1940s. Given help by Peter Watson, George Barker, Elizabeth Smart, and Francis Bacon, but drink grew in importance and their work became less admired. Colquhoun died 1962. MacBryde was knocked down by a car on leaving a Dublin pub.
5 Eddie “The Eagle” Edwards born, 1963. Finished heroically last in two ski-jumping vents of 1988 Winter Olympics.
8 Caitlin Thomas born 1913 (died 1994). Married Dylan Thomas 1937. He died in 1953 and she wrote several autobiographical books, one, Double Drink Story (published 1997) blaming alcohol for their troubles.
12 Edvard Munch, Norwegian painter, born 1863 (died 1944). Work includes Uninvited Guests (1932) showing the artist in his kitchen with bottles on a table, levelling a gun at two figures outside the window.
12 Vincenzo Peruggia, who stole the Mona Lisa in 1911, arrested with it in Florence, 1913.
12 Kenyan independence, 1963.
13 Sir John Pope-Hennessy, (1913–1994). Director, Victoria and Albert Museum, 1967–73; Director, British Museum, 1974-76, resigning after the murder of his brother James by a rent boy and his friends.
18 Franz Ferdinand, from 1889 heir presumptive to the Austro-Hungarian throne, born 1863. Assassinated at Sarajevo, 28 June 1914, by Gavrilo Princip, a Serbian nationalist rejected for membership of the Black Hand on account of his small stature.
18 Willy Brandt born 1913 (died 1992). Chancellor of West Germany 1969-74. Nobel Prize for Peace, 1971.
21 James Lucas, “The Hertfordshire Hermit”, eccentric, born 1813 (died 1874). On his mother’s death on October 24 1849, he would not part with her corpse until the following January, barricading himself in the kitchen of his house near Hitchin, Hertfordshire, for the last 24 years of his life. He slept on the ashes, which piled up several feet deep and lived on bread, cheese, red herrings, eggs, milk and gin. Fearing he might be poisoned, he often rejected his victuals, which were then eaten by rats. A family of foxes made their home in the house. He hated the Queen but was fond of children and tramps and on Good Fridays doled out sweets, coppers, and gin to hundreds. But his windows were broken by stone-throwers and Dickens wrote about him with hostility. He left £120,000 in his will.
21 John and Roy Boulting, film directors, born twins 1913 (died 1985 and 2001). Films included Brighton Rock (1947), Fame is the Spur (1947), Lucky Jim, (1957), Carlton-Browne of the FO (1958), I’m All Right Jack (1959).
21 Jack Hobbs, cricketer, died 1963 (born 1882). After gaining a Surrey contract, for 30s a week, with £1 in winter, he made his first-class debut in 1905, opening the batting with Hayward against the Gentlemen of England, captained by W G Grace. Played in 61 Test matches, 1908–30. Made 197 centuries and 61,237 runs (averaging 50.65).
22 Benjamin Britten, composer, born 1913 (died 1976). Peter Grimes (1945), Young Person’s Guide to the Orchestra (1946), War Requiem (1961).
23 William Makepeace Thackeray, novelist, died 1863 (born 1811). Vanity Fair ran for 19 months from January 1847. Henry Esmond (1852) preferred by Trollope, among others.
25 Tristan Tzara, Dadaist, died 1963 (born, Romania, 1892).
27 Elizabeth Smart, writer, born, Ottawa, 1913 (died 1986). After inviting George Barker and his wife to Canada in 1940, embarked on love affair that inspired her novel By Grand Central Station I Sat Down and Wept (published 1945 by Tambimuttu). Went to England, bore Barker four children, and gave shelter in her flat to people such as Craigie Aitchison, the painter, and Patrick Kavanagh and W S Graham, the poets. Moved to Suffolk but died in Soho.
Christopher Howse Telegraph.co.uk