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Sunday 21 September 2014

Comet-chasing space probe sends first signal to Earth after three-year hibernation

Published 20/01/2014 | 20:03

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An artist's impression handout image by the European Space Agency shows the Rosetta orbiter deploying the Philae lander to comet 67P/ChuryumovGerasimenko. After a 10-year journey, the Rosetta spacecraft is due to end its hibernation today and prepare for an unprecedented mission to orbit the comet and dispatch a lander to the surface. The image is not to scale; the Rosetta spacecraft measures 32 m across including the solar arrays, while the comet nucleus is thought to be about 4 km wide. Photo: REUTERS/European Space Agency-C. Carreau/ATG medialab/Handout via Reuters
A video projection shows a signal that was resent by European Space Agency's satellite Rosetta to the agency's mission control centre ESOC in Darmstadt. Photo: REUTERS/Ralph Orlowski
German Aerospace Center (DLR) Chairman Johann-Dietrich Woerner (L) and European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Director General Thomas Reiter react after ESA's satellite Rosetta resent a signal to ESOC in Darmstadt January 20, 2014. Comet-chasing spacecraft Rosetta woke from nearly three years of hibernation on Monday to complete a decade-long deep space mission that scientists hope will help unlock some of the secrets of the solar system. Rosetta, which was launched by the ESA in 2004, is due to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and land a probe on it this year in an unprecedented manoeuvre. REUTERS/Ralph Orlowski (GERMANY - Tags: SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY)
German Aerospace Center (DLR) Chairman Johann-Dietrich Woerner (left) and European Space Operations Centre (ESOC) Director General Thomas Reiter react after ESA's satellite Rosetta resent a signal to ESOC in Darmstadt today. Comet-chasing spacecraft Rosetta woke from nearly three years of hibernation on Monday to complete a decade-long deep space mission that scientists hope will help unlock some of the secrets of the solar system. Rosetta, which was launched by the ESA in 2004, is due to rendezvous with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko and land a probe on it this year in an unprecedented manoeuvre. REUTERS/Ralph Orlowski

A comet-chasing space probe that has been in hibernation for almost three years has woken up and sent its first signal back to Earth.

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The European Space Agency received the all-clear message "Hello World!" from its Rosetta spacecraft some 800 million kilometres (500 million miles) away shortly after 6pm.

Rosetta was put into hibernation in 2011 to conserve energy for its long journey to meet with comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko.

If all goes as planned the probe will rendezvous with the comet in the coming months and drop a lander onto its icy surface in November.

Rosetta is named after a block of stone that allowed archaeologists to decipher ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs. Scientists hope the probe's findings will help them understand the composition of comets and thereby discover more about the origins and evolution of our solar system.

Comets are regarded as flying time capsules because they are essentially unchanged for 4.6 billion years. Scientists have speculated that comets, essentially giant, dirty snowballs, may be responsible for the water found on some planets.

And like asteroids, comets also pose a theoretical threat to life on Earth.

If all goes as planned, Rosetta will reach 67P in the coming months and fly a series of complicated manoeuvres to observe the comet - a lump of rock and ice about four kilometres (2.5 miles) in diameter - before dropping a lander onto its icy surface in November.

The Philae lander will dig up samples and analyse them with its on-board instruments.

The probe and its lander will keep sending back data until their batteries die or the debris streaming off the comet irreparably damages their sensitive instruments.

The mission is different from Nasa's Deep Impact probe that fired a projectile into a comet in 2005 so scientists could study the resulting plume of matter.

The agency also managed to land a probe on an asteroid in 2001, but comets are much more volatile places because they constantly release dust and gas that can harm a spacecraft.

Nasa is planning another space rock mission between 2019 and 2021. The agency is looking into sending a robotic spaceship to lasso a small asteroid and haul it close to the moon, where spacewalking astronauts would explore it.

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