Several hundred thousand people demanding an independent Catalonia have joined hands to form a 250-mile human chain across the north-eastern region of Spain.
The demonstration aimed to illustrate local support for political efforts to break away. Organisers estimated about 400,000 people took part.
Catalonia claims a deep cultural difference based on its language, which is spoken as well as Spanish in the wealthy region.
Catalonia's regional leader Artur Mas has promised to hold a referendum on independence in 2014, but the Madrid-based government has said that such a vote would be unconstitutional.
Polls indicate that the majority of Catalans agree on holding a referendum, though surveys in the region of 7.5 million people indicate support for independence is around 50%.