Sunday 4 December 2016

Nasa's solar-powered spacecraft Juno reaches Jupiter after five-year journey

Alicia Chang in Washington

Published 05/07/2016 | 02:30

An artist’s rendering shows the Juno spacecraft above Jupiter, as it is about to go into orbit around the planet.
An artist’s rendering shows the Juno spacecraft above Jupiter, as it is about to go into orbit around the planet.

After a five-year journey, a solar-powered spacecraft is spinning towards Jupiter for the closest encounter with the biggest planet in our solar system. Nasa's Juno spacecraft has slowed down from a speed of 240,000kmh and slipped into orbit around Jupiter - on autopilot, the move comes without any help from ground controllers.

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Juno is travelling through a hostile radiation environment, "but it should be able to withstand it", said Kenny Starnes, programme manager for Lockheed Martin, which built the spacecraft. Juno's camera and other instruments were switched off for the arrival so there will not be any pictures at the moment the spacecraft reaches its destination.

Scientists have promised close-up views of Jupiter when Juno skims the cloud tops during what will be a 20-month, $1.1bn mission.

The fifth rock from the sun and the heftiest planet in the solar system, Jupiter is what is known as a gas giant - a ball of hydrogen and helium - unlike rocky Earth and Mars. With its billowy clouds and colourful stripes, Jupiter is an extreme world that most likely formed first, shortly after the sun. Unlocking its history may hold clues to understanding how Earth and the rest of the solar system developed.

Juno is only the second mission designed to spend time at Jupiter. Galileo, launched in 1989, circled Jupiter for 14 years, beaming back splendid views of the planet and its numerous moons. It uncovered signs of an ocean beneath the icy surface of Europa, considered a top target in the search for life outside Earth.

Juno's mission is to peer through Jupiter's atmosphere and map the interior from a unique vantage point above the poles.

There is also the mystery of the planet's 'Great Red Spot'. Recent observations by the Hubble Space Telescope revealed the centuries-old monster storm in Jupiter's atmosphere is shrinking.

The trek to Jupiter, spanning nearly five years and 2.8 billion kilometres, took Juno on a tour of the inner solar system followed by a swing past Earth that catapulted it beyond the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter.

Along the way, Juno became the first spacecraft to cruise this far out powered by the sun. A trio of massive solar wings sticks out from Juno like blades from a windmill, generating 500 watts of power to run its nine instruments.

Plans called for Juno to swoop within 5,000km of Jupiter's clouds - closer than previous missions - to map the planet's gravity and magnetic fields. Juno is an armoured spacecraft, its computer and electronics are locked in a titanium vault to shield them from harmful radiation. Even so, Juno is expected to get blasted with radiation equal to more than 100 million dental X-rays during the mission.

Like Galileo before it, Juno meets its demise in 2018 when it deliberately dives into Jupiter's atmosphere and disintegrates - a necessary sacrifice to prevent it accidentally crashing into the planet's potentially habitable moons.

Irish Independent

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