Are women better decision makers than men?
Yes, actually, they are, says a wave-making new book. Trouble is, often the workplace doesn't see it that way… Our reporter investigates
They say the average person makes 35,000 decisions a day. Some are quick and thoughtless, like whether to have tea or coffee; others concern the big stuff, like what school you should send your child to or whether to apply for that job.
Yet in her new book, 'How Women Decide', Therese Huston explores the theory that women's decisions are respected less than men's - and why this could be holding women back. "There's a huge double standard when it comes to how men and women are perceived as decision makers," explains Therese, a cognitive psychologist from Seattle University.
Therese decided to write the book after looking at her bookshelf: "At one end, there were these best-selling books about how to be a brilliant decision maker - all written by men and featuring interviews with men like stockbrokers and athletes. At the other end were books aimed at women, on gaining leadership skills and confidence. I thought, 'Once those women are at the table, will their decisions be taken as seriously as men's?'"
She believes not. "Men are respected as decision makers more than women, especially in the workplace, largely because there's this cultural belief that women are incapable of making smart choices at work. You see slightly mocking studies about women taking too long deciding what to wear each day - but where are the similar ones looking into how long men take to choose a new car? These stereotypes back the belief that if you want a decision to be made quickly and effectively, ask a man. They may also be making women question their ability to make the big decisions."
So Therese set out to pick apart the stereotypes to see what scientific research had found. "Firstly, I found that the trait of decisiveness is very valued. Studies show that it is the top-ranking quality we look for in a leader. Studies also show that society sees men as being more decisive. However, scientific research shows that men and women struggle with decision making equally.
"The only difference I found was during the teenage years - teenage girls are more indecisive than teenage boys. Otherwise, there's little difference between the genders."
However, there are some differences: "Women are more collaborative,' says Therese. "A female boss is more likely to ask the opinions of those around her when making a choice.
"Women ask for input, which has been shown to help you make better decisions. Ironically, however, this is often seen as a weakness rather than a strength."
She also found that during times of stress, men and women make different choices - and the outcomes are often better when women are involved (a recent 'Fortune' article on the financial crash of 2007 was entitled 'How more women on Wall Street could have prevented the financial crisis'). Or as Therese puts it, "Neuroscientists know about the differences between the way men and women make decisions, but investments bankers probably don't." Study after study backs this view up.
Cognitive neuroscientists Mara Mather, from the University of Southern California, and Nicole R Lighthall, from Duke University, North Carolina, recently studied the way men and women make decisions and found that in times of stress, they react very differently. During their study, which involved playing a virtual gambling game, they found that when the females became stressed, they made smart decisions - quitting while they were ahead or taking safe bets - but when the men became stressed, they did the opposite, risking everything for a (slim) chance of winning big.
Another study, by neurobiologist Ruud van den Bos from Radboud University in the Netherlands, also found a greater tendency in men to make risky decisions when stressed. At the same time, it found that women make better decisions when under pressure and the closer a woman gets to a deadline or stressful event, the sharper her decision-making skills become. Yet van den Bos found that the women in the study were more critical of their decision-making ability than the men.
Therese says women are often brought into big companies when things are falling apart - yet if they were included when key decisions were initially being made, it might prevent problems in the first place.
So why are women's decision-making skills so derided? In her book, Therese cites an example: in 2013, Yahoo's newly appointed chief executive Marissa Mayer announced that the company would be ending its full-time work-from-home policy - her decision was criticised by everybody from newspaper columnists to Richard Branson.
A week later, another well-known US chief executive, Hubert Joly of Best Buy, announced the same thing - yet nothing was said.
Therese (pictured right) gives another example from early in her career, when she was living and working five hours away from her fiancé. Both were advancing in their jobs but they decided that he would quit his job to move closer to hers.
"His bosses offered him recommendations, wished him luck and people accepted his decision," she says. "A year later things changed and we decided I would move to follow his career. It was the exact same scenario we'd been in a year before, yet I faced a lot of questions. My boss at the time came into my office, closed the door and told me I had poor judgement. Friends and colleagues also questioned my decision - a decision that was never queried when it was made by a man. It would seem women have their choices scrutinised a lot more than men."
Which is ironic, given that they may be making better decisions in the first place. © Daily Telegraph
'How Women Decide: What's True, What's Not, and Why it Matters' by Therese Huston (Oneworld) is out in paperback on Thursday
Yes, let's do it, right now! How to make brilliant decisions
Rename a feeling
"If you're anxious about a decision, tell yourself you're just excited," says Therese. "The body experiences the two emotions in the same way."
Adopt the 10, 10, 10 strategy
"Think about the consequences of your decisions in 10 hours, 10 months and 10 years," says Therese. "When we're struggling with a decision we're often struggling with the initial impact it'll have. Quitting your job may feel awful for 10 hours, but in 10 weeks, and 10 years, will you feel happier with your choice?"
Give yourself three options
"When we make decisions we often give ourselves just two options to choose between," says Therese. "But try adding a third. Research shows that people's satisfaction levels five years down the road are higher when they give themselves several options when making big decisions."
Therese points to research that shows collaborative decision-making - something women are more inclined to - leads to better outcomes. "So don't be afraid to invite others to help you make decisions."
Remain in charge
While it's important to ask for other for their opinions, don't let this decision-making style be mistaken for indecisiveness. "Be explicit about when you are and aren't taking input," says Therese. "This might mean saying, 'Let's have a meeting on Monday to discuss things and I'll decide what's best on Tuesday.'"