1 Dissent in the camp
The Government was far from united in seeking a Yes vote. Fine Gael should have been the driving force but the heavy lifting was left to Jobs Minister Richard Bruton and backbenchers Regina Doherty and Simon Harris. Most of the Fine Gael ministers were conspicuous by their absence in the campaign. Labour's campaign was not helped by many Labour senators canvasasing for the No side, but its strategy under Junior Minister Alex White was to do only what was necessary. It was Fine Gael's campaign to win or lose.
2 Putting the cart before the horse
The Government promised Dail reform once the Seanad was abolished. Its plans had been drawn up without cross-party support. It would have made more sense to reform the Dail as much as possible first – so that the public could see what they were getting.
3 Taoiseach Enda Kenny's refusal to debate
It worked for Mr Kenny to minimise his TV debate appearances during the general election campaign but this was different. Abolishing the Seanad was his idea – and he missed out on a chance to get his message across to the voters.
4 Voter reluctance to add to Government's power
The "power grab" argument is usually trotted out by the No side in every single referendum – and it got another outing here. Voters appear to have a deep suspicion about anything that claims to be political reform – and the Government failed to convince them that it really intended to bring in a more democratic parliamentary system.
5 Democracy Matters
Credit must be given to those behind this group, which include senators Fergal Quinn, Katherine Zappone and Michael McDowell. With limited resources, they consistently argued the case for Seanad reform rather than abolition.