When cow-doctors, charmers and quacks ruled the roost
Published 23/04/2014 | 02:30
Ever wondered how did farmers treat sick animals in the days before vets? For the last few years this question has taken up a lot of my time, and the results of my research provide a fascinating insight into a rural Ireland which has almost vanished.
Before the arrival of vets in smaller Irish towns and villages in the 1950s, animals were treated by a wide variety of individuals ranging from cow-doctors, charmers and herbalists to chemists, blacksmiths and clergy.
Blacksmiths, for example, doubled as the horse-doctors and treated a wide range of equine conditions including farcy, flesh worms, gripes, skin eruptions, spavin and splints.
Charmers relied on elements of magic, superstition and religion to work a cure.
Most treatments, however, were carried out by either the farmer or local cow-doctor. On the farm, men treated the larger beasts, while women cared for the younger or smaller animals such as calves or poultry.
Most farming families had a basic knowledge of which herbs and plants possessed healing properties and an extensive range of treatments were used.
Administering strong black tea to calves was a cure for scour. The active ingredient in tea is tannin which was a recognised treatment for diarrhoea.
The tea of briar roots, also rich in tannin, was used in a similar way. Oak bark and willow bark were also used to treat the condition as was a herb called Mícheál gorm, which was mixed with spirits of nitre.
Oak bark contains tannin while willow bark has pain-killing, anti-inflammatory properties – similar to aspirin – which would have relieved the inflamed bowel.
Other ingredients required for home remedies were acquired from the local chemist; many chemists made up their own veterinary products.
Arthur H Jones, a chemist in Doneraile, Co Cork, launched his world famous 'Scour Specific' in 1896 and it was in use for more than 60 years, with the British Royal family among the customers using the product for their herds.
Milk fever was treated by filling the cow's udder with air, using a bicycle pump. Each quarter was pumped in turn and then taped to keep the air in. Milk production was stopped, allowing calcium levels to rise.
The cow was also given her own milk to drink, therefore recycling the calcium. Vets treated the condition in the same way; in addition to pumping the udder, a vet would also pump a cupful of boric acid solution into each quarter as a mastitis preventative.
The use of herbs and the bicycle pump were based on sound scientific evidence, but other cures are hard to comprehend.
These included burning a corduroy trouser under a pony's nose as a cure for a cold and boiling a penny's worth of chopped-up envelopes in milk as a treatment for scour.
Paddy O'Connor, Abbeyfeale, Co Limerick, interviewed in his 99th year, recalled seeing a local man fill a pipe with tobacco and when he got it working well he put the pipe in the backside of a horse and let it smoke down to the very last – this was said to be a cure for colic.
Others procedures required more specialised attention than the farmer could provide. Every townsland had a 'specialist' for tasks such as calving cows, de-horning or castrating colts.
These local veterinary practitioners were variously described as cow-doctors, handymen and quacks.
These men were themselves farmers, skilled or handy with cattle and they used herbal remedies or simple surgical procedures in their work.
Evidence suggests that these local practitioners were interested only in helping their neighbours; they worked hard in all weather and expected little in return for their services.
James 'Heck' Collins of Abbeyfeale, Co Limerick remarked how it was all part of the comharing (sharing work) system and recalled that his grandfather, a cow-doctor, was repaid by having his cows serviced by a client's prize bull.
Retired Newport, Co Tipperary vet, Pakie Ryan, saw cow-doctors in action and praised their efforts.
"They were able to put in a vessel I'd say as good as any of the vets now and they were doing it without any epidural or often without any hot water or with no electricity, under terrible conditions."
The terminology used to describe various conditions has also changed over the years. Terms such as 'worm in the tail', murrain, blast and ruatha péiste are rarely used today.
Ruatha péiste was a common term for stomach or intestinal conditions and pains which caused the animal to lie kicking on the ground.
The condition was often associated with young calves.
Until the 1960s, separated creamery milk was returned to the farm and fed in large quantities to the young animals. Invariably this led to stomach problems and calves suffered colic, which often remedied itself within a short time.
When it didn't, a treatment – still used today – was to drench the animal with liquid paraffin.
The term snaidhm na péiste, translated as the worm's knot, described a rope charm also used to affect a cure. Ennistymon farmer, John Organ, interviewed in 2011, was an expert at making the knot.
Some understood the problem to be a knotted gut and were projecting their mental image of the problem on to the animal and imagining a solution by undoing the knot.
Another cure for intestinal problems was to dose the animal with a live eel, hoping that the eel would wriggle its way through the animal's intestine, removing the obstruction before exiting at the other end.
Another charm involved sticking a pin in the ground to rid an animal of red water. The first person who saw the animal urinating would stick a pin in the ground as near as possible to the place where the water was passed.
If the act was never mentioned to anyone, the animal could be cured. Foot rot was sometimes cured by 'turning the sod'; the impression made in the soil by the infected foot was dug out and turned over.
The notion of the magical reversal of things for the better no doubt underlines these rituals. Some of the charms were so far-fetched as to border on the ridiculous, but their main power was psychological.
Every effort was made to save an animal's life and if it died it was seen as God's will.
Sometimes, by accident more than by design, concoctions and rituals may have worked a cure because certain treatments slowed up the animal's metabolism, allowing its own natural resistances a chance to work.
Many factors contributed to the demise of the old treatments, particularly the stream of new drugs, including penicillin, available to vets from the 1940s onwards.
John Pierse, a Listowel vet, said that penicillin – as well as saving animals' lives – was also the making of many vets' reputations.
"Up to this we were only helping the animal to get over the illness by itself. The mortality rate dropped dramatically (with penicillin) and the veterinary surgeon gained a new status."
Paddy Nolan, a retired Kilkee vet, concurred: "Joe Farrell came to Kilrush in 1948 and he brought with him penicillin, an injection for red water and a black quarter vaccine.
"Any one of those three was enough to make him king but to have the three of them together made him God."
TB key to vets in our towns
The world’s first veterinary school was established at Lyon, France in 1762 and the first English speaking veterinary schools were London (1791) and Edinburgh (1823).
Unsuccessful attempts were made to establish a veterinary college in Ireland and it was 1900 before a permanent college opened at Ballsbridge.
In 1800, an attempt by the Dublin Society to set up an institute to provide veterinary training resulted in the first trained veterinary surgeons arriving in Ireland, namely George Watts and Thomas Peall.
The following decades saw many Irish men travelling to Britain to be trained; some joined the British army while others returned home to practice.
These first qualified veterinary surgeons set up in cities or larger towns where in private practice they engaged predominantly in clinical work involving horses.
In Ireland it took more than a century before qualified vets became established and accepted. Indeed, it was the 1950s, with the introduction of compulsory TB testing, before many smaller towns and villages acquired their first permanent vets.
Common home treatments
Ash: Burn ash and smoke up the nostrils for strangles in horses
Axle grease: Ringworm
Bluestone and tar: Hoof rot
Bog water: Taken from a stagnant pool as a cure for red murrain
Bread soda and paraffin oil: Cure for ringworm in calves
Brown sugar & eggs: Given to a delicate calf
Buttermilk and turpentine: Red murrain; animals should fast for 12 hours afterwards
Cold tea: Scour in calves
Copper wire: Hung from an animal's dewlap to prevent blackleg
Corduroy: Burn under a cows nostrils as a cure for cold
Cream and ashes: Rub on cow's teats for cow pox
Dog oil (liver of dog fish): Soak liver in water for three months, then bottle and dose
Eel's blood: Warts in animals or humans, cut off head and bury afterwards
Envelopes: Cut a penny's worth of envelopes into small bits and boil in milk for scour
Forge water: Gripe in cattle
Goat: Kept with cows to prevent contagious abortion
Goose: Boil the goose and give soup to an animal for the murrain
Goose grease: Pox on a cow's teats
Honey and milk: Mixed and given to horses for bots
Lemonade bottle: Rub to cure a sore breast in a horse
Lime: Put in a dog's ear for fits
Linseed oil: Cough in calves
Paraffin oil: Given to cattle in food or drink as a remedy for grass cough
Porter, brown sugar & ginger: Mix and give twice daily as a cure for murrain
Waste by-product from illicit distillation: Fluke in sheep or abortion in cattle
Sheep's milk: Given to calves with scour
Soot and salt: Cure for the 'piast eireaball'
Stockholm Tar: Used for sore hooves
Strong tea: Cure for red water
Sulphur and turpentine: Ringworm in calves
Tea: Half pound boiled in a pint of water for red murrain
Treacle and Epsom salts: A pound of each for murrain
Whiskey and wine: Half a glass of each for eight or nine days for white scour
White of egg: With cipins and bandages for broken leg in chicken or bonamh
Wood ash: Lice in cows
Wool oil: Applied to skin for killing vermin in cattle