Dr Joseph E Murray, who performed the world's first successful kidney transplant and won a Nobel Prize for his pioneering work, has died at the age of 93.
Dr Murray suffered a stroke at his suburban Boston home on Thursday, the Thanksgiving holiday, and died at Brigham and Women's Hospital yesterday, hospital spokesman Tom Langford said.
Since the first kidney transplants on identical twins, hundreds of thousands of transplants on a variety of organs have been performed worldwide.
Dr Murray shared the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1990 with Dr. E. Donnall Thomas, who won for his work in bone marrow transplants.
"Kidney transplants seem so routine now," Dr Murray told The New York Times after he won the Nobel. "But the first one was like Lindbergh's flight across the ocean."
Dr Murray's breakthroughs did not come without criticism, from ethicists and religious leaders.
Some people "felt that we were playing God and that we shouldn't be doing all of these, quote, experiments on human beings", he said in a 2004 interview in which he also spoke out in favour of stem cell research.
In the early 1950s, there had never been a successful human organ transplant.
Dr Murray and his associates at Boston's Peter Bent Brigham Hospital, now Brigham and Women's Hospital, developed new surgical techniques, gaining knowledge by successfully transplanting kidneys on dogs.
In December 1954, they found the right patients, 23-year-old Richard Herrick, who had end-stage kidney failure, and his identical twin, Ronald Herrick. Because of their identical genetic background, they did not face the biggest problem with transplant patients, the immune system's rejection of foreign tissue.