Retired US General H Norman Schwarzkopf, who topped an illustrious military career by commanding the international coalition that drove Saddam Hussein's forces out of Kuwait in 1991 but kept a low public profile in controversies over the second Gulf War against Iraq, has died aged 78.
Gen Schwarzkopf died in Tampa, Florida, where he had lived in retirement, according to a US official. A much-decorated combat soldier in Vietnam, Gen Schwarzkopf was known popularly as Stormin' Norman for an explosive temper.
He served in his last military assignment in Tampa, Florida, as commander-in-chief of US Central Command, the headquarters responsible for US military and security concerns in nearly 20 countries from the eastern Mediterranean and Africa to Pakistan.
Gen Schwarzkopf became CINC-Centcom in 1988 and when Saddam invaded Kuwait three years later to punish it for allegedly stealing Iraqi oil reserves, he commanded Operation Desert Storm, the coalition of some 30 countries organised by President George HW Bush that succeeded in driving the Iraqis out.
"General Norm Schwarzkopf, to me, epitomised the 'duty, service, country' creed that has defended our freedom and seen this great nation through our most trying international crises," Mr Bush said in a statement. "More than that, he was a good and decent man - and a dear friend."
At the peak of his postwar national celebrity, Gen Schwarzkopf - a self-proclaimed political independent - rejected suggestions that he run for office, and remained far more private than other generals, although he did serve briefly as a military commentator for NBC.
While focused primarily in his later years on charitable enterprises, he campaigned for President George W Bush in 2000 but was ambivalent about the 2003 invasion of Iraq, saying he doubted victory would be as easy as the White House and Pentagon predicted.
In early 2003 he told the Washington Post the outcome was an unknown: He said: "What is postwar Iraq going to look like, with the Kurds and the Sunnis and the Shiites? That's a huge question, to my mind. It really should be part of the overall campaign plan."
Initially Gen Schwarzkopf had endorsed the invasion, saying he was convinced that former Secretary of State Colin Powell had given the United Nations powerful evidence of Iraqi weapons of mass destruction. After that proved false, he said decisions to go to war should depend on what UN weapons inspectors found.
He seldom spoke up during the conflict, but in late 2004, he sharply criticised then-Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld and the Pentagon for mistakes that included inadequate training for Army reservists sent to Iraq and for erroneous judgments about Iraq. He told NBC: "In the final analysis I think we are behind schedule. ... I don't think we counted on it turning into jihad (holy war)."