The 52-year-old was sentenced on 12 counts, including conspiracy to aid the Pakistani group Lashkar-e-Taiba which mounted the attacks on the landmark Taj Mahal Hotel and other targets.
The maximum sentence was life in prison.
Headley pleaded guilty and co-operated to avoid the death penalty and extradition to India.
Headley was born Daood Gilani to a Pakistani father and American mother.
He changed his name in 2006 to travel more easily to and from India