The Two And A Half Men star's divorce petition cites irreconcilable differences and does not list a date that the couple separated.
Moore, 50, announced last year that she was ending her marriage to the actor, who at 34, is 15 years her junior, but she never filed a petition.
Kutcher's filing does not indicate that the couple has a prenuptial agreement. The filing states Kutcher signed the document today, hours before it was filed in Los Angeles Superior Court.
Kutcher and Moore married in September 2005 and until recently kept their relationship very public, communicating with each other and fans on the social networking site Twitter. After their break-up, Moore changed her name on the site from @mrskutcher to @justdemi.
Moore and Kutcher created the DNA Foundation, also known as the Demi and Ashton Foundation, in 2010 to combat the organised sexual exploitation of girls around the world. They later lent their support to the United Nations' efforts to fight human trafficking, a scourge the international organisation estimates affects about 2.5 million people worldwide.
Moore was previously married to actor Bruce Willis for 13 years. They had three daughters together - Rumer, Scout and Tallulah Belle - before divorcing in 2000. Willis later married model-actress Emma Heming in an intimate 2009 ceremony at his home in Parrot Cay in the Turks and Caicos Islands that was attended by their children, as well as Moore and Kutcher.
Kutcher has been dating former That '70s Show co-star Mila Kunis.
The divorce filing was first reported today by People magazine.