News of the execution was widely cheered in India, with political parties organising public celebrations and some people setting off fireworks. But for those more deeply touched by the events of 26/11, as the attack is known there, the hanging offered only a partial relief.
"This is an incomplete justice as the masterminds and main handlers of 26/11 are still absconding," said Kavita Karkare, the widow of Hemant Karkare, the chief of Mumbai's anti-terrorism squad who was killed while pursuing Kasab. "They should also be hanged."
Indian officials accuse Pakistan's intelligence agency of working with the militant group Lashkar-e-Taiba to plan the attack - an allegation Islamabad denies. India and Pakistan, which have fought three wars since they were carved out of British India in 1947, suspended peace talks after the Mumbai attack.
Since 2011, the two countries have rekindled the peace talks, taken steps to bolster trade and signed a visa agreement to make cross-border travel easier, but New Delhi's frustration with Pakistan's failure to bring those responsible for the attack to justice has complicated efforts to mend relations.
The attacks were also a major embarrassment for India's security establishment, which failed to stop a small group of gunmen who entered Mumbai on a dinghy from running roughshod over the police and elite security forces for three days.
Kasab was buried at Yerwada Central Jail, where he was executed. Some of India's most famous freedom fighters including Mohandas Gandhi served time there.
Kasab and nine other gunmen entered Mumbai by boat on November 26, 2008. Carrying mobile phones, grenades and automatic weapons, they fanned out across the city, targeting two luxury hotels, a Jewish centre, a tourist restaurant and a crowded train station. The attack was broadcast live on television, transfixing the nation and the world.